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Red soup, as in the old days

Red soup, as in the old days


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Peel and wash the onion, carrot, pepper, celery.

All the vegetables are blended.

Take a 4 l. Pan, put 3 l. Water and put it on the right heat.

When the water boils, put the blended vegetables and let it boil for 10 minutes.

Meanwhile, peel the tomatoes and put them in a blender or on a small grater.

Add the tomatoes to the pot, cook for 5-10 minutes.

The rice, well washed in several waters, is put in the soup pot.

It matches the salt.

When the rice is cooked, turn off the heat and leave to cool for 15 minutes.

The washed, finely chopped larch is added to the shard.

It is good cold with a hot pepper ........... who prefers :))))))


Delicious and tasty little ones

At first the small paste is very thick and hard to knead. I gradually started adding cold bone soup. Then I continued to mix and kneaded everything for about 7-8 minutes. The dough becomes fluffy and soft. Do not put all the liquid if you feel that 250 or 300 ml is enough.

I moved the pasta to a clean bowl and covered it with plastic wrap. I put all this pasta in the fridge. He stayed there to soak overnight. I took the bowl of small pasta out of the cold and left it on the kitchen table for 30 minutes. I left the pasta to warm up a bit. I kneaded the meat with my hands for another 2-3 minutes to aerate it. After this kneading the small paste became good and tasty.

GRILLING COOKIES WITH GRINDING COAL OR WOOD

I made the fire on the grill and when the embers were suitable (without open flame) I greased the grill well. Grease the grill with a piece of bacon and fry the little ones. The heat must be medium to high. If it is too big, the little ones will burn on the surface and remain raw in the middle. If it is too small, it dries and decreases a lot.

Small ones will return on the whole surface three or four times. Do not insist on returning them early because they will break. I moved the delicious and tasty little fries to a clean tray and covered them. I covered them with aluminum foil to keep them warm. You should not cover tightly because you need to breathe.

At the end, the delicious and tasty little ones can be served with either hot mustard or sweet mustard.

As a drink, a good quality black or blonde beer is welcome. I prefer a beer with an alcohol level of 8% strength every time.


Dobrogean evening

When evening comes to Mamaia, pamper yourself with a culinary experience and an adventure in the world full of charm and color of traditions, music and dances specific to Dobrogea - Greek, Turkish, Tatar, Aromanian, Russian-Lipovan, Armenian and Romanian!

You don't have to go to Greece to see the Greeks dancing sirtaki and eating souvlaki, you don't have to travel to Turkey to enjoy Turkish dances and baclavale, you don't have to buy a plane ticket to Russia, like to dance with the Lipovan Russians… You are in Mamaia and you can't miss a real Show, with dance and music ensembles of the 6 main minorities living in full harmony in Dobrogea, to which are added the authentic Romanian dances and music from the Dobrogea region !

You will enjoy a rich and tasty dinner, which brings you dishes from the cuisine of the minorities of Dobrogea and, for almost 2 hours, you will discover a true mosaic of rhythms, costumes, cultures, flavors and traditions that represent the unique and special charm of this tourist region. from Romania, which we proudly call DOBROGEA.

At the end of the show you will be able to buy souvenirs specific to all Dobrogea minorities.

The dinner includes over 30 cold and hot dishes, salads and desserts. While you finish your dessert and enjoy a delicious cocktail, you will watch over 100 artists who will evolve, in traditional costumes of the minorities they represent, in a show that includes Greek, Turkish, Tatar, Lipovan and Russian, Aromanian, Armenian and Dobrogean dances.

  • dinner and show of traditional music and dances
  • over 30 cold and hot dishes
  • captivating show of traditional music and dances from the culture of 8 peoples
  • over 100 artists evolving in the show
  • introduction to Sirtaki dance and "Geamparaua dobrogeana"

It's included:

  • entry to the "Dobrogean Evening" program
  • interactive live show
  • rich dinner and soft drinks

They are not included:

Participant

When evening comes to Mamaia, indulge in a culinary experience and an adventure in the world full of charm and color of traditions, music and dances specific to Dobrogea & # 8211 Greek, Turkish, Tatar, Aromanian, Russian-Lipovan, Armenian and Romanian !

You don't have to go to Greece to see the Greeks dancing sirtaki and eating souvlaki, you don't have to travel to Turkey to enjoy Turkish dances and baclavale, you don't have to buy a plane ticket to Russia, like to dance with lipovencele & # 8230You are in Mamaia and you can't miss a real Show, with dance and music ensembles of the 6 main minorities living in full harmony in Dobrogea, to which are added the authentic Romanian dances and music from the Dobrogea region!

You will enjoy a rich and tasty buffet dinner, which brings you dishes from the cuisine of Dobrogea minorities and, for almost 2 hours, you will discover a true mosaic of rhythms, costumes, cultures, flavors and traditions that represent the unique and special charm of this tourist regions in Romania, which we proudly call DOBROGEA.

At the end of the show you will be able to buy souvenirs specific to all Dobrogea minorities.

The buffet dinner includes over 50 cold and hot dishes, salads and desserts. While you finish your dessert and enjoy a delicious cocktail, you will watch over 100 artists who will evolve, in traditional costumes of the minorities they represent, in -a show that includes Greek, Turkish, Tatar, Lipovan and Russian, Aromanian, Armenian and Dobrogean dances.

Essential:

  • luxurious buffet dinner and show of traditional music and dances
  • buffet with over 50 cold and hot dishes
  • captivating show of traditional music and dances from the culture of 8 peoples
  • over 100 artists evolving in the show
  • introduction to the Sirtaki dance and in & # 8222Geamparaua dobrogeana & # 8221

Event location

Dorna Restaurant is located in the northern part of Mamaia Resort and is one of the most famous and appreciated locations on the Romanian coast, due to its unique architecture. In 2014, the restaurant was completely renovated, currently has several ultra-modern lounges with different capacities.

Reservations

Agentia Mistral Tours & # 8211 Telegondola Mamaia

Phone: 0728 281 679/0728 281 676

and through Hotels and Partner Travel Agencies

About Dobrogea

DOBROGEA, called in Antiquity Scythia Minor, is the blessed land between the Danube and the Black Sea, the oldest Roman province among all the Romanian provinces and the first Romanian province to enter the light of history.

Dobrogea has the qualities of an exceptional land, of a fascinating region through the history of the place and the people, through the poetry of the landscape with the strangest shapes and colors, through the very contact with the oldest lands of the country and with the greatest reminiscences of the past. .

Capital Dobrogea Romanian is Constant, the residence of the county of the same name, which occupies the southern part of the region, being one of the oldest certified cities in the territory romania. The first documentary attestation dates from 657 BC. when on the place of the present peninsula (and even under the waters of today, next to the Casino) a Greek colony called Tomis was formed.

The current Dobrogea consists of counties Constanța and Tulcea.

Map of Dobrogea from 1789Geographical, historical, spiritual and ethnic characteristics make the picturesque Dobrogea the most attractive and interesting place of the homeland, where variety is the main advantage.

The sea, the port, the coast, the Danube Delta, the ancient cities, the specific places of worship and the traditions of the 18 nations that live here and, above all, the holiday idea make Dobrogea the ultimate destination for the time when you feel free and happy.

Constant, the city built under the transparent and protective eyelid of Pontus Euxinus, the city - emblem of the Romanian coast, went down in history 2500 years ago, being placed on the hearth of the Ancient Fortress Tomis, entering universal literature through the work of the Latin poet Publius Ovidius Nasso, "the singer of gentle love" exiled to Tomis, by order of Emperor Augustus.

In Roman times, Tomis was a real metropolis.

Constanța, was founded following the Greek colonization of the Black Sea basin (Greek Pontos Euxeinos) by Milesian settlers in the 7th-5th centuries BC, under the name of Tomis. This name is probably derived from the Greek word τομή (Tomi) meaning cut, cleft. According to legend, Jason and his Argonauts stopped here after being sent to the Caucasus to steal "Golden Wool". Followed by the fleet of the king of Colchis, Aietes "the Owl", would have cut to pieces his son, Absyrtos, previously held hostage on board, to force the king to search and gather the remains for the funeral ceremony, thus giving the Argonauts the time it takes to flee to the Bosphorus. But archaeologists consider it more plausible that cut (from the shoreline) to have designated rather the ancient port, today submerged, in front of the Casino. Another possible origin of the name would be Tomiris, the queen of the Massages, a Getic tribe that lived between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea (Herodotus). Tomiris (Greek form of the Iranian name Tahm-Rayiš) (ca. 530 BC) was the queen Masagetae, an Iranian people from Central Asia, east of the Caspian Sea. Herodotus is the first historian to mention her, followed by Strabo, Polyaenus, Cassiodorus, and Jordan. The historian Jordanes (Iordanes) around 551 AD, wrote about Tomiris in the work "Getica" or "On the origin and deeds of the Getae". At that time he was a bishop and lived - according to some historians - somewhere on the banks of the Lower Danube in Dacia. Originally Gordan, Iordanes was closer to the events evoked and had access to many historical documents, he had at his disposal many sources that have disappeared today, including the 12 books written by Cassiodorus. His testimony is the best proof that Queen Tomiris laid the foundations of the city of Tomis. “After gaining this victory and taking so much prey from her enemies, Queen Tomiris moved to that part of Moesia, which is now called Scythia Minor, a name that comes from Greater Scythia, and built the fortress. Tomis on the Moesian shore of Pontus, after her name ".

The town was conquered by the Romans in 71 BC. and renamed Constantiana after the sister of Emperor Constantine the Great. During the thirteenth century The big sea (as it was then called the Black Sea) was dominated by Italian merchants in Genoa who helped develop the city. Subsequently, Constanța suffered a decline under Ottoman rule, becoming a simple village inhabited by Greek fishermen and Tatar horse and sheep breeders. The town became a city again after the construction of the Cernavoda-Constanța railway and the port, in 1865, for the export of Romanian grains. After the War of Independence (1877-1878), when Dobrogea became part of the Kingdom of Romania, Constanța, the main port of the state, grew continuously, holding this role until today. The port of Constanța covers an area of ​​39.26 km², has a length of almost 30 km, is the largest port in the Black Sea basin and is ranked 4th in Europe.

Constanța is an industrial, commercial and tourist center of national importance.

Tourism is becoming a very important branch of economic activity. Although Constanța was already promoted as a spa by King Carol I, the development of the naval industry had the effect of reducing the beaches. However, due to its location near the tourist resorts, many people discover and visit the monuments in the city. Constanța is also a hotbed of trade and education, which are important aspects of the local economy.

Constanța, being one of the largest cities in Romania, is also a very important cultural center. It works here Constanța State Theater, established in 1951 and Oleg Danovski National Opera and Ballet Theater, established in 2004 by reorganizing the existing institutions at that time. Constanța is also known for its numerous museums: Museum of Natural Sciences, consisting of six sections: dolphinarium, planetarium, astronomical observatory, micro-reservation and exhibition of exotic birds and scenery, Aquarium, Navy Museum, Museum of Folk Art, Museum of National History and Archeology, Museum of the Sea, Constanța Port Museum and "Ion Jalea" Sculpture Museum.

In Constanța you can find examples of architectural styles different. casino, one of the best examples of architecture Art Nouveau from Romania, today it is considered as the symbol of the municipality. The old mosque and the old synagogue can still be seen (the second one no longer has a roof), and The new mosque built in 1910 in the style Moorish can be visited. The Roman edifice from second century or the said Lighthouse Genovese (built in 1860 by the French engineer Blaise-Jean-Marius Michel, called by the Ottoman Turks "Misel Pasha", on the Genoese pedestal of the Middle Ages) are, together with the Greek Church & # 8222METAMORPHOSIS & # 8221, the oldest buildings in the city. There are also various monuments, for example the statue of Ovid and the bust of Mihai Eminescu located on the seafront. The former town hall, now the Museum of National History and Archeology, has also been preserved, and the Navy Museum building has recently been renovated.

Constanța is the only city in Romania served by all modern means of transport, namely road, rail, sea, river and air.

From ancient times, human settlements have sprouted in the Dobrogean lands, as evidenced by archaeological sites dating back to the Neolithic.

With an important economic potential for Romania, it also enjoys a diversity of historical and cultural traditions that are also given by the important number of ethnic or national minorities that enrich the Romanian civilization as a whole. These ethnic groups are the result of a history of over 2500 years and the complexity of the phenomena of culture and civilization that brought them to live together, enjoying rights and freedoms that allowed them to preserve and promote their specificity. ethnically, to preserve its cultural identity, history, religion, traditions and customs, gastronomy, making a very important contribution to the development of economic and social life, as well as the cultural heritage of Romania. In a world troubled by inter-ethnic convulsions, Dobrogea's past and present offer an unparalleled model of tolerance and understanding, based on the synthesis of moral values ​​and the common multisecular destiny. The population of 1 million inhabitants consists of Romanians, Aromanians, Turks, Tatars, Bulgarians, Jews, Greeks, Armenians, Russians, Lipovans, Ukrainians, Gagauz, Gypsies (Roma), Germans, Italians, Albanians, Serbs, Hungarians, etc.

The psychologist Filaret Sîntion calls Dobrogea an ethnological miracle:

It is an ethnic miracle for 18 nations of the earth to live here in close proximity. " .

"As all the peoples of the world live in America, so Dobrogea managed to assimilate these nations.

Dobrogea has gone through various dominions, and the settlement on the shores of the Black Sea makes it open to hospitality. The port cities are cosmopolitan, but they manage to keep their picturesque charm.

Plain, hill, mountain, delta and sea, in a word "DOBROGEA", with this God endowed the land of Scythia Minor, and also with people endowed to live in full understanding, carrying over centuries, traditions, customs and crafts extremely valuable for Romanian and international tourism.

Nicolae Iorga said about Dobrogea: “ In the cafes, Bulgarian hats, Mocan hats, peasant hats, city hats, Turkish hats, Tatar turbans and the corresponding clothes were lined up in chairs next to each other, in a silent ethnographic exhibition.

Whoever visits Dobrogea, can say with all his heart that this ethnic mosaic represents a European synthesis of civilizations and a landmark of brotherhood between people.

Once protected by deities and blessed by God, this dream land is true Land of the Sun, it has a huge potential for prosperity, conferred by its geographical, historical and demographic originality.

The Danube Delta (except secondary delta of the Chilia arm) is traditionally part of Dobrogea,

The Danube Delta (3446 km²), located mostly in Dobrogea, Romania and partly in Ukraine, is the second largest and best preserved of the European deltas.

The Danube Delta became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991, being classified as a national biosphere reserve in Romania and as a national park in the IUCN International Taxonomy. It overlaps with both sites of Community importance Danube Delta (SCI site) and Danube Delta (maritime area) as well as special avifauna protection areas Beștepe & # 8211 Mahmudia and Danube Delta and Razim Complex & # 8211 Sinoie.

The Danube Delta site (since 21 May 1991) is protected by the Ramsar Convention (The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands) as a wetland of international importance.

The national park includes the nature reserves: Capul Doloșman, Histria Fortress, Vătafu Complex & # 8211 Lunghuleț, Sacalin Zătoane Complex, Grindul and Răducu Lake, Chituc Grind, Grindul Lupilor, Popina Island, Potcoava Lake, Caraorman Forest, Letea Forest11 Ro Buhaiova, Corbu-Nuntași & # 8211 Histria, Belciug Lake, Rotundu Lake, Arinișul Erenciuc, Periteașca Complex & # 8211 Leahova, Nebunu Lake, Babadag Forest & # 8211 Codru, Ghiunghiurmez Hill and Murighiol Saltworks.

Dobrogea sights

The traveler who stops in Dobrogea will be amazed by the various forms of relief, by the traces left by those who once loved and died at Pontus Euxinus. Dobrogea does not just mean sea and sand. Wherever you go, the land between the Danube and the Black Sea offers you wonderful places, taken from the story books.

The Constanța Casino, the Adamclisi Monument or the Danube Delta are just some of the amazing places that should be visited in Dobrogea, at least once in your life.

St. Andrew's Monastery

Leaving from Cernavoda to the south in the direction of Ostrov, on the road that winds through the hills, close to the Danube, you reach after several fishing localities in Ion Corvin commune. A sign, at the exit of the village, guides you to continue on a side road to reach after 3-4 kilometers the Monastery & # 8222Pestera Sfantului Apostle Andrew& # 8222. At the end of the road that passes through the forest is the monastery with the three churches and the body of the cells, located in a beautiful natural setting. The first place to visit in the monastery is cave Holy Apostle Andrew, a real church dug in the rock, located at the base of a small forested mountain. On the walls of the church in the cave there are many icons that can be admired by candlelight and candles. In place of the altar is now a large icon of the Saint Apostle Andrew to which all the believers who come here to the cave worship. Not much is known about how the cave was discovered, because Dobrogea was for 400 years, until the War of Independence in 1877, under Ottoman rule. What is known for sure, however, is the next incident that happened in 1918, when a great lawyer from Constanta, named Jean Dinu, while traveling through this area, following a dream that was repeated, discovered Cave of the Holy Apostle Andrew in a deteriorated condition. The cave was surrounded by forest, the trees reached almost to the entrance to the cave, the entrance was much smaller and weeds had grown inside, no one lived here in the cave. After cleaning the cave he built a small body of cells. With the first cells erected, the first monks gathered. They served the holy services in the cave. They then built the tower above the cave which in 1936, as some people say was 40 meters and could be seen from the main road. Others say he was only 18 meters tall. In 1943, Bishop Chesarie Paunescu consecrated the cave for the first time. World War II came and then it was the communist period, the very difficult period for the orthodox church and the communists, more precisely the Russians, the Bolsheviks, destroyed everything here. The cave became the sheepfold. The peasants of this area sheltered their sheep here when the weather was bad. The most serene period for the cave came only after 1990 when Father Nicodim Dinca, the founder of this Holy Monastery, a monk from the Sihastria monastery in Neamt County, together with Father Hieromonk Victorin Ghindaoanu, a priest there, with the blessing of His Eminence Lucian began again the works of redevelopment of the cave and the construction of the holy monastery. The cave has the shape of a church. In front was the altar to the patron saint last year. She was brought icon the sea Saint Andrew which was placed in place of the iconostasis. Then we have the nave and the narthex. Everything is in the rock.

The priests of the local cult, called in the ballad St. Andrew's Cave & # 8222saints & # 8221, received him with love in their midst on Saint Andrew the Apostle, the first disciple of Jesus, who had come to these lands preaching the word of the gospel of the Savior. They offered him lodging in the cave worshiped today by Christians.

In the current church in the cave, in the narthex, in a niche, there is a kind of bed, initially carved in stone, about which tradition says that the apostle Andrew rested on it. Today, those who are suffering come here to regain their health, spending a few days and nights on this & # 8222 bed of Saint Andrew & # 8221.

As a sign of honoring the place where the Lord Himself first called, over the years, it has also been used as a place to burn candles or incense. Certainly, this is the & # 8222home & # 8221 that is being talked about in the ballad St. Andrew's Cave.

The cave did not change until the entrance where that wall was built, after the model of the one from 1918 and above the place a tower was built that is only 4 meters high.

Dervent Monastery & # 8211 Once upon a time, on the hill of Ostrov, not far from the Bulgarian Silistra, people were amazed to discover that four massive stone crosses had begun to grow from the ground. It was not a snort or a parallel impression of anyone. three righteous virgins. That's how the story begins Dervent Monastery, with a great divine miracle.

In Dervent, the footprints of Saint Andrew and the first Christians are still preserved.

Somewhere, not far away, is the famous The Apostle's Cave. At Basarabi, watch the first ones chalk churches, dug in the soft flesh of the limestone mountain, and at Halmyris, Isaccea or Niculitel, the eternal sleep of our great martyrs and founders of faith sleeps their eternal sleep: Zotic, Atal, Camas, Filip, Epictetus, Astion, Cyril, Darius or Evagrius.

In a nutshell, it is said that Ostrov Hill, like all of Dobrogee, is our Romanian Bethlehem. The living and healing crosses from Dervent have grown, as Vasile Voiculescu wrote wonderfully, like fruitful trees, abundantly sprinkled with the drops of blood of the first Roman martyrs.

OnCassian & # 8211 Located near the monastery of St. Casian, the cave is known, because here, in the sec. IV, led a life of ascetic & # 8222dobrogeanul & # 8221 Casian, one of the founders of monasticism. Today, it is a place of pilgrimage for Christian believers across the country. The cave of St. John Casian houses a hermitage with less than ten monks and is visited annually by thousands of parishioners.

Cheile Dobrogei & # 8211 The Dobrogea Gorges Reserve covers an area of ​​285 hectares. Access is made only by car on the route Hârșova or Constanța (depending on the direction of travel) & # 8211 Kogălniceanu to Târgușor (12Km). In the middle of the village is the signpost to the right, towards Pantelimon. After 8 km in the field, the sign with & # 8222Reservaţia Cheile Dobrogei & # 8221 appears. The landscapes are of a rare beauty & # 8211 natural ditches and gorges ply the steep banks of the valley, caves dug in limestone, such as & # 8222La Adam & # 8221 and & # 8222Bats Cave & # 8221 with special plant species, but also important archaeological discoveries.

Babadag Forest & # 8211 Babadag Forest located in the area of ​​the Babadag Plateau is one of the representative forests in the North Dobrogea landscape. The nature reserve declared a protected area by Government decision, covers an area of ​​524.60 hectares and is included in the Danube Delta National Park (biosphere reserve) on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Lacul Iacobdeal & # 8211 The lake called by the locals & # 8216La Fântână & # 8217 is an anthropic lake, formed in a basin resulting from the extraction of granite. It is located within Turcoaia commune, in a former stone quarry on Iacobdeal hill. The access to the lake is made from DN 22D Măcin & # 8211 Cerna, to Turcoaia commune, on DJ 222H. The lake can be included in the area of ​​the tourist objectives of the Măcin Mountains, due to its way of formation, unique in the country.

Enisala Fortress & # 8211 Partially rebuilt and with a chic access road that leads the traveler to the entrance gate, Enisala, the only medieval fortress in Dobrogea, is about to regain its former glory. The fortress is located in the vicinity of Enisala village, on a hill overlooking the landscape, at the intersection of important water and land roads, being built on the highest promontory located between Babadag and Razim lakes. Also known as Heracles, the Enisala Fortress and its entire area on the shores of Lake Razim "are from another world." The fortress, like the whole of Dobrogea, changed the "owners" very often, being sometimes Genoese, sometimes belonging to the Romanian Country, sometimes Ottoman and so on. The fortress is beautiful and very well restored and preserved, and the surroundings look unreal, especially the terraced hill on the lake shore. Razim.

The natural reservation from Fantanița Murfatlar- Put under protection in 1932, the reservation is located 1 km south of the Murfatlar vineyard, on the left side of the Constanta-Ostrov road. The reservation occupies an area of ​​19.70 ha and is included in the Murfatlar forest, whose surface is 641 ha. Starting with 1962, the reservation is protected by law and houses rare species such as: garlic, Dobrogean flax, colilia, Murfatlar thorn, hyacinth, as well as species with exclusively Dobrogean area: thyme, pesma, dwarf almond, steppe peony, castor, and so on In this area lives the Dobrogean tortoise, whose area of ​​spread in our country is limited to a few points in the Dobrogea steppe. The numerous floristic species and the landscape value of the area make this reservation an important point of attraction for tourists.

Tastings The wine tasting at Murfatlar is a perfect combination of a cultural and culinary holiday. An experience of wine tasting that you will always remember! Leave Constanta and walk the country streets, breathing tradition and discovering nature, in an unforgettable tasting adventure.

Romanian wine culture dates back to ancient times and is considered to be one of the oldest in Europe.

Murfatlar wine It is famous for its sweet taste, made with the help of extremely sweetened grapes that are harvested after drying. Enjoy a day in the company of wine creators. Enter the atmosphere of the perfume and the colors of the vineyards from Murfatlar, in the kingdom of the most famous wines.

The chalk churches from Murfatlar Being such a special and unique monument in the landscape of our country, near the Murfatlar monastery, the cave ensemble aroused the interest of many specialists who formulated various hypotheses. Even if not from the beginning of the opening of the exploitation, but shortly after that, it seems that a group of monks gathers in Basarabi who seem to work together with the locals to extract the chalk. The monks seem to have come from the territory now occupied by Bulgaria or are influenced by Christianity there. There are many options for how the chalk quarry became a monastery similar to those in Cappadocia. It's hard to say for sure. Graffiti is very numerous, most of which are related to Christian worship. Countless crosses of various shapes and sizes, inscriptions in Old Slavonic, human and animal images with such a religious charge: pigeons, saints, liturgical scenes, very naively represented, historians often struggling to identify the scenes.

Adamclisi Monument & # 8211 Tropaeum Traiani & # 8211 To the north of Adamclisi commune, in an area of ​​wooded hills, is & # 8222The triumphal monument& # 8221 meaning the remains still standing in the famous Tropaeum Traiani.

The triumphal monument from Adamclisi, is erected in honor of the victory of the Roman army over the Dacians. The monument, as it is today, was rebuilt in 1977, after one of the hypothetical models of the old monument in ruins, being currently declared a historical monument. Like many other creations of antiquity, Trajan's Adamclisi monument was not a work of delight, but a well-defined function: it was to speak of the great deeds of the Roman armies against a stubborn, valiant, and untamed enemy.
Also here are the remains of the Roman mausoleum and the ancient altar which, together with the metopes, the trophy and the friezes with battlements from the memorial monument, are arranged musically. Built in honor of Emperor Trajan, in 106-109, as a tribute to the defeat of the coalition of Geto-Dacians, Boers and Sarmatians, following the battles fought by the Romans with them in 102, the monumental memorial Tropaeum Traiani is a real source of information about events in the ancient history of the Romanian people. The triumphal monument had a height of 39 m, a circular shape with a diameter of 38 m, being composed of a cylindrical core of appreciable dimensions (12.6 m height 31 m diameter), built of rough masonry, surrounded at the base by a the circular platform with 7 stone steps, the nucleus erated dressed in stone blocks that continued with a row of metopes in number of 54 (of which until now only 49 have been preserved), carved in bas-relief with scenes from the battles with ghettos. the Dacians. Above the metopes is a frieze with 26 battlements (of which only 23 have been preserved) also carved in bas-relief and forming the crown of the circular core.

Above the nucleus rises a frustoconical roof clad in stone scales, as well as a 6 m high hexagonal pedestal, which supported the "trophy" itself, ie a trunk dressed in classical armor, with weapons of war, with weapons and prisoners also carved in stone. On one of the faces of the hexagonal pedestal was inscribed an inscription from which it results that the monument is dedicated to the "God Mars, the avenger" by Nerva Trajan Augustus, emperor and Caesar, the conqueror of the Germans and Dacians, son of the divine Nerva, high priest, to XIII for the sixth time a tribune, for the sixth time an emperor, for a time a consul, the father of the country. "

Danube Delta Museum of Natural Sciences & # 8211 The most remarkable cultural and tourist attraction in Tulcea is certainly the Museum of Natural Sciences "Danube Delta & # 8221. Since its confirmation as a thematic museum on July 8, 1964 and until now, the museum operates in a building, architectural monument, which is distinguished by interior and exterior decorations, in which a special place is occupied by pictorial and stucco elements. at the end of the 19th century, the building located in the center of Tulcea belonged to the Greek shipowner Alexandru Avramidis.After 1944 it became the headquarters of several public institutions, including the first museum unit in Tulcea, the Danube Delta Museum (whose opening took place on May 1, 1950, with a heterogeneous exhibition, consisting of exhibits of archeology, ethnography, sciences nature and fine arts).
Like the other museums, it started from a modest museum patrimony, consisting of 1500 zoological, mineralogical pieces and a consistent botanical herb, the Museum of Natural Sciences & # 8222Delta Delta & # 8221 owns, after 40 years of scientific activity , collections of botany, malacology, entomology, ichthyology, ornithology, mammalogy, which totals 66,737 museum pieces, to which is added a collection of over 200 living aquatic organisms (crustaceans, reptiles, fish). Of this rich heritage, a relatively small part is exposed for public viewing through basic or temporary exhibitions organized annually. Thus, the permanent exhibition (reorganized since 2000 from presentation in the form of dioramas in exposure in the form of biogroups) presents to nature lovers common and rare species, representative of the flora and fauna of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, and the formation and geomorphological evolution of Danube Delta.

"Mihail Kogălniceanu" Constanța International Airport & # 8211 Mihail Kogălniceanu Constanța International Airport (IATA: CND, ICAO: LRCK) is one of the most important airports in Romania. He is a permanent member of the A.C.I. Europe and the Romanian Airports Association. Located in the N & # 8211 NV part of Constanța municipality, Constanța airport has an important geo-strategic position compared to the economic objectives of national and international interest, being located 26 km from Constanța, 14 km from the Danube-Sea Waterway. Black and about 100 km from the Danube Delta. Also, the Airport has connections with important road transport routes (European roads E60 and E67), railway transport (Bucharest-Fetești-Constanța railway line). Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport Constanța has a major interest in creating a base for air freight and due to its location can become a transit airport to the Orient and Asia. The airport is permanently open to air traffic throughout the year and has the following facilities: car park 150 seats, snack bar, rent a car, taxi, passenger transport airport-train station, travel agency, luggage security, exchange office, ATM, automatic currency exchange, free wireless Internet, ambient sound, public telephones, vending machines for coffee and soft drinks, non-stop medical office, facilities for mother and child, facilities for people with disabilities, shopping area, courier companies. The activity of Mihail Kogălniceanu Constanța International Airport is closely related to the economic development of the region in which it is located. The flexible and stimulating pricing policy of the services offered to the airlines, the increase and diversification of the services offered to the passengers and the air operators as well as the application of an active marketing policy, make up the strategy of continuous development of the airport traffic.

About North Dobrogea there is a lot of talk, especially when it comes to The Măcin Mountains, about Danube Delta or about the coast. It is the only place in the country where you can find mountains, gorges, sea, delta, ponds with a lot of fish and, of course, the Danube. And you don't have to go too far to see them all. But you need a lot of time and four seasons because every season North Dobrogea has a different face and something else to offer. Here are ancient and medieval fortresses and fortifications everywhere, some of which are too little known. Enisala and Argamum are perhaps the best known but the land is full of ruins with many stories: Dinogeția - near Galați, Noviodum - at Isaccea, on the road that connects Tulcea to Galați, Aegessus - in Tulcea and the list is long.

The city of Tulcea. In Tulcea, on the Danube seafront, there is the ecotourism museum and the aquarium, both interesting and presenting the beautiful habitats of the Delta and its surroundings.

The villages of the Russian-Lipovan communities are must see. The houses are colored in bright blue - yes, so are the roofs of Santorini, bathroom with sauna and in every yard or women cooked like matrioshka dolls who gather around the holidays and sing and dance. There are many reasons to go to Jurilovca or to Russian Glory. What's more, the Lipovan churches are special and the Russian churches are real jewels, similar to those in Moscow, and I can only say about the dishes: Delicious!

In the extreme north of North Dobrogea, for a short time, it came out of nowhere and I think that in less than half a year, a road will be like a palm tree. Through the vineyards of Niculiţel and in the spring through the field of blood poppies, there were 3 roads that form The Triangle of Monasteries Celic-Dere, Saon, Cocoş but also the Paleo-Christian Basilica from Niculiţel are the 3 Dobrogean monasteries included in this tourist circuit. Beyond the religious importance of this circuit, the road to Saon, for example, is a dream. The monastery is located on the waterfront, in an almost unknown area of ​​the Delta: Somova-Parcheş lake complex.

From Tulcea, along the county road 22C, there are some places that are a shame to miss. It is the easiest way to get to the heart of the Danube Delta, because the road is paved to the Lower Danube. But until then, stop in Mahmudia and Murighiol.

If you cross the Danube by ferry to Smârdan (Brăila) or Galaţi, follow the signs to Măcin. I don't know if the Măcinului Mountains National Park still needs a presentation. It is certain that not only Ţuţuiatu Peak or even simpler, Greek worth the attention if you get in the area. For example, you can do one wine tasting dobrogene, from the vineyards here, at The Royal Court (to taste the wines of the official supplier of the Royal House of Romania) or to go to Turkey, see Lake Iacobdeal, formed on the site of a former granite quarry. If you cross the Danube around Hârşova, go on DN22A towards Ciucurova, then through Slavele Rusă and Cercheză through the middle Babadag Forest to the city of Babadag and Enisala. After a visit to the fortress above the waters, go to Jurilovca and from there to Argamum Fortress and Capul Dolojman. That is, on the shores of Lake Razim, from where boats leave daily (during the summer) to the well-known Portita's mouth.

On the border between North and South Dobrogea are several other treasures that are just waiting to be discovered. From Jurilovca go on DJ222 to Ceamurlia de Jos, follow E87 to Mihai Viteazu and turn left on DJ226 towards Cetatea Histria - on the shores of Lake Sinoe.

From here, make a detour and keep the road to Cogealac and further, to Dobrogea Gorges. They have been quietly hidden, for thousands of years, between the localities of Cheia and Târguşor. The first time I saw them by chance, from the train, on the road from Bucharest to Tulcea. On the railway bridge from Târguşor, some bare rocks suddenly appeared, rounded by the Dobrogean winds.

Ovid Island is an island in Lake Siutghiol, in Constanța County, Dobrogea, Romania. The island is located 500 meters from the town of Ovidiu and Mamaia resort and has an area of ​​0.026 km². [1] Ovid Island is an island of calcareous origin and it is is one of the places that exerts a real attraction on tourists arriving in Mamaia resort. Over time, the small patch of earth aroused the curiosity and imagination of the people, who wove a series of legends around it. One of these stories has to do with the origin of the name of the island. It is said that during his exile, the poet Ovidius Publius Naso retired to this patch of land to write his lyrics, so the island was named after him. In reality, the specialists did not find any evidence to prove the presence of the poet Ovid on this small island in Lake Siutghiol. However, the legend remains to this day and there are still people who strongly believe in its veracity. In the past centuries the island was populated by fishermen who built shelters here, but also by gardeners who took advantage of the fertile soil of the island. With the identification of its tourist potential, the Island of Ovid was transformed into a place of relaxation for tourists, keeping this use even today. In order to reach the island rich in vegetation, you have at your disposal a boat that leaves the Casino area, at regular intervals. Until you reach the island, a quiet walk on the lake awaits you. On Ovidiu Island is arranged a beautiful tourist complex, and those who wish have the opportunity to stay here for a few days. The complex's rustic restaurant serves mainly fish dishes, and every night a band maintains the atmosphere.

Little Scythia & # 8211 Scythia Minor, is the name under which the current territory of Dobrogea and the Quadrilateral was known in antiquity. The oldest description of the region belongs to Herodotus. During this time, the northern boundary was the Danube Delta, and the first mention of the name & # 8222Small Science & # 8221 (Mikrá Skythia) is in Strabo's Geography written no earlier than 20 BC. and the year 23 AD. It was part of Dacia for a period, after which the region was conquered by the Roman Empire, becoming part of the province of Lower Moesia. It included the localities of Tropaeum Traiani, Arrubium, Axiopolis, Beroe, Carsium, Capidava, Durostorum, Ibida, Ulmetum, Noviodunum, Sacidava, Salsovia, Aegyssus, Orgame, Histria, Tomis, Stratonis and Callatis. From 395, the province was part of the Byzantine Empire. It remained under this name until the seventh century when the classical name became obsolete. The region between the Danube and the Black Sea, the former Scythia Minor, takes its name from the Bulgarian ruler Dobrotici, who ruled between 1347 and 1386. He was the son of the boyar Balica, the first ruler to declare independence from the Byzantine Empire. The principality was then known as the Land of Cavarna, which stretched from the Măcin Mountains to beyond Varna. Under Dobrotici's rule, the region developed to the mouth of the Danube. The strategist concluded important alliances, led successful battles and managed to put Dobrogea on the map of the Balkans due to its strategic position. After his death, the leadership was taken over by his son Ivanco, who was killed in the battle with the Ottomans in 1388. Shortly afterwards, the ruler Mircea cel Bătrân (1386 & # 8211 1418) was to unite Dobrogea with Wallachia. After the disappearance of the great ruler, Dobrogea came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire where it would remain for 450 years. But he kept his name unchanged, in memory of the leader. A statue of Dobrotici can be seen in Bazargic, today's Dobrich city. The fact that they belong to a unique place under the sun gave the Dobrogeans the consciousness of a special identity. Coming into contact with all kinds of nations with which they have learned to share life and place, Dobrogians they practiced the universal language of harmony and understanding. Naturally learning all the nuances of this "Esperanto", the people of Dobrogea have transformed the region into a model of multiculturalism and tolerance that is hard to find anywhere else in the world. Dobrogeans have learned to be adaptable, regardless of the nation they come from. And that helps increase their pride. Paradoxically, the Dobrogeans kept their identity despite so many waves of people settling in the southeast corner of Romania. The language I speak is clean, with no accent, although it has borrowed especially Oriental neologisms that enhance its flavor. Their religion remained Christian, Orthodox, although there were long times when most places of worship were Muslim. The key to their survival, regardless of the nation they come from, is therefore one: adaptability.

Adolphe d'Avril, a connoisseur of the Romanian language being married to a Romanian woman, is astonished by the fact that, although many nationalities living here are of the same religion - Greeks, Bulgarians, Ruthenians (Orthodox), each has built his own church. # 8221Here is the explanation of the whole question of the Orient & # 8221.

Genevan Eugene Pittard describes: & # 8222Ethographically, Dobrogea is an extraordinary land & # 8221. According to a statistic published by him, they lived here, along with Romanians, Turks, Turks, Tatars, Bulgarians, Russians, Germans, Italians, Armenians, Jews.

An extraordinary remark comes from a Romanian-French therapist, Jean-Baptiste Odobeştianu, promoter of music education, who defined in just a few words the ineffable spirit of Dobrogea: "Here, the air can be heard."

The traditional Dobrogean costume

The port of Dobrogea presents the characteristics of the Wallachian and plain areas on the left bank of the Danube. Traditional ports are no longer fully present in everyday life but still contain some specific elements.

Women's suit: The borangic scarf, of great finesse, chosen at the ends with stripes called "ages" and with different motifs, gives the suit a touch of elegance. At the time of the penetration of industrial products, the marama was replaced by the giar or castinca. Their elegance is given by the way the tassels are arranged, called “bells”, which were placed in 3-4 rows or by the presence of flowers arranged like a border. The women's shirt, straight, called "full shirt" is characterized by the simplicity of the arrangement of small ornaments but of great expressiveness. The stitching elements made with the needle from the edges of the sleeves, the shoulder and the soles of the shirt, called “keys” or “holes”, have a practical function that combines with the aesthetic one. The ornamental motifs arranged on the sleeve, on the chest and on the bottom of the shirt are called “snails”, “streams”, “trees”, and they enrich the artistic value of the garment. The patterns on the shirts are highlighted by the predominant use of red and black, they are repeated or alternated depending on the pattern on the shirts. Pestelca is the piece with the most decorated elements, it is the one that sits over the shirt and covers the body from the waist down. The rich ornamentation and the colors used are highlighted on the simple background of the shirt (hence the saying "I put the pestle and I skip"). The predominant motifs that decorate the pestle are the geometric ones (rhombuses, rectangles, squares and broken lines), called plastic “chicken”, “turned grass”, “measles”, “rabbit trace”, expressing the matrix of the universe in which the woman lives and works.

The men's dress is distinguished by a reduced ornamentation both in terms of motives and their disposition. The round, tuguiate hats in circles are made of lamb fur. The shirt, initially a "shirt", straight, without plate, open at the front, with wide sleeves, was replaced at the beginning of the century. 19th century with a plaid shirt, with a straight collar, with a "band" on the front and with "bracelets" on the sleeve. The shirt is decorated with a collar pattern, with "bracelets" or a cuff at the end of the sleeves and on the chest with "chicken".Men's shirts are also distinguished by the use of borangic in the making of holiday ones. The simple trousers, made of dark cloth, were decorated with gaitans, which were tied at the waist with a wide red or white belt.

Dobrogean dances

The Dobrogean dance style represents a well-defined choreographic specific: strong and restrained rhythmicity, light and accentuated, wavy and dotted. The Dobrogean dance made a synthesis of the choreographic values ​​of various regional origins, becoming an independent and representative unit in the picture of the Romanian regional styles. Due to the special historical conditions, this synthesis phenomenon occurred later than the rest of the country, and was planted on the native elements, represented by the choreographic folklore of the old Dobrogean population. Dobrogea games have the features of plain games: hot and sautéed. Keep simple circle shapes and excel in beaten choruses. Even the pair games have a dynamic and colorful look and a general jumped and vivid movement. Here are some of them: Alamaia, Braul macanesc, Cadaneasca, Dragaica, Geamparaua, Ghimbaseasca, Hora Dragaicii, Paidusca, Papusica, Poparlanul, Iropca. The specific games from Dobrogea are: Babusca from Cerna, Braul on the beat from Ostrov, Cadaneasca from Nufarul, Cadaneasca from Enisala, Geamparaua, Hora in two parts from Nufarul, Hora stanga from Ostrov, Momarlanul from Ostrov, Săltata of the manna of the Ostrov.

Gastronomy from Dobrogea

Dobrogea cuisine it is obviously very much influenced by the natural environment in which it developed and by the people who went through these beautiful places. The Black Sea, the Danube Delta, the fauna, the climate, but especially the influence of the peoples established on this territory have left their mark on the plates and cauldrons of the Dobrogeans. The basis of Dobrogean dishes contains many dairy products, especially yogurt or whipped milk, cheeses, but also fish dishes. fish, is the star of the kitchen
and leads detachedly in the top of Dobrogea's favorite dishes, which is easy to understand, especially when the Danube Delta and the Black Sea stretch as far as the eye can see.

Among the dishes specific to Dobrogean cuisine we mention: fish soups, tripe soup, fish marinades, carp brine, grilled fish, stuffed carp, mutton sausage, roast lamb, saslac, chebab, musacaua, kefir, rice garnishes, but also baclavalele, saraili, raisin sweets and shit. Saramura it will always remain in place of honor. The soups are soured with borscht, cabbage juice and vinegar. The locals also cook dishes based on game, mutton (especially Turkish), beef or pork. Lamb and mutton are prepared in a variety of ways, including lamb, ostropel, pots, saslac (skewered) and baked ram with rice garnish. A peculiarity is the fact that raisins, nuts and concentrated syrups are very often used for cooking, especially in areas influenced by Turkish culinary culture. Dairy products and cheeses are also very popular, and fruits, vegetables and eggs are not on the Dobrogean menu. Dobrogean pie it is probably the most popular dish in the region, either sweet or salty. The merdenele prepared with sheep's milk are similar. Also typical are the cheeses & # 8211 pies with cheese and greens, specific to the Danube Delta area. Snacks from fresh vegetables in the form of salad in combination with eggs, cheese, cream are widely used. The sauces are colored with tomato paste, they are obtained from vegetables stewed with flour dissolved in water and & # 8222 extinguished & # 8221 with bone broth. The basic dishes are accompanied by rice garnishes, vegetables and pasta. Whipped milk, yogurt and Telemea cheese are used a lot, which is consumed as such but also in the preparation of other dishes. A typical Macedonian dish, also found in our country, is peppers, prepared from peppers with cheese, a kind of stew with peppers. The sweets are the same as a hundred years ago, just as tasty and tasty, and the influence of the Turks brought on the tables of the Dobrogeans baklava (two layers of walnuts sandwiched between three layers of pie, buttered and baked, finally syruped with a flavored syrup), sarailie (similar to baclava), homemade halva and gingerbread. One of the traditional products is and the cake, usually enjoyed on the biggest Christian holidays, or when everyone wants!

Receptive to European influences, with the development of seaside tourism, Dobrogean cuisine is light and fragrant, which allows it to be always changing, but the typical Dobrogean flavor has not been lost even in these conditions. It is no wonder why Dobrogea cuisine is so appreciated by tourists who come in increasing numbers to enjoy the beauty of the places, but also the appetizing dishes.

Throughout history, and especially after the First World War, with the development of resorts on the Black Sea coast, the cuisine of Dobrogea, suffers from the influence of great European cuisines, the dishes are fine, delicate, tasty, the range of dishes improves and the quality them. Dobrogea cuisine on the Black Sea coast can compete with any other traditional cuisine.

In Romania, Armenians are an ethnic community about a millennium old, being present in all regions of Romania. The Armenians settled in Dobrogea in the 15th century. XIV, and their presence here was significant, both numerically and economically, being mainly merchants, bankers, craftsmen, contributing to the economic and spiritual life of the city.

In the territory between the Danube and the Sea, Dobrogea, the presence of Armenians is documented from the Middle Ages to the present day by numerous period testimonies, accounts of foreign travelers, archival documents, records in the press of the time, all attesting their beneficial contribution to the evolution of material and spiritual civilization. in this European area with multiple ethno-confessional and multilingual interferences.

Famous merchants in the 16th and 18th centuries, the Armenians proved resistant to the vicissitudes of time, their migration to Europe beginning especially after the occupation of a significant part of their country by the Ottoman Empire, at the beginning of the 16th century. Strong colonies were established in Lemberg and Venice, the latter being the European center of Levantine trade. In Constantinople, as well as in the Black Sea Ports, they held important economic positions, being bankers and organizers of big business, important mediators of trade between East and West. In this capacity, Armenians frequently reached the cities and ports at the mouth of the Danube and the western shore of the Black Sea, where they settled in large numbers, often playing an important role in the economic and spiritual life of these places.

The law for the organization of Dobrogea, promulgated on March 9, 1880, declares in article 3, citizens all the inhabitants of Dobrogea. All cults of minorities enjoyed equal and tolerant treatment. In Constanta, for example, he officiated in Protestant and Catholic places of worship, in churches of the Greek, Bulgarian and Armenian population, in Israeli synagogues of Spanish and Western worship, in mosques and mosques, in the established language of worship.

In the first communal council, along with Romanians, Turks, Greeks, Bulgarians, there were also Armenians. G.Auneanu recalls that, since the arrival of the Romanian authorities, among the notables of the city he met George Caracudi, Al.Logaridi, Al.Cecilianopolu, Arist Benderli, Baruth Seni Sassu, M.Frenchian and O.Despoţi, all great cerealists. Dobrogea has been considered, many times, an interethnic model, an area where the most diverse traditions have been happily intertwined. Minorities enjoyed the legal framework for protection. Starting with 1500, the existence of Armenians is reported in Babadag, in Dobrogea.

On April 25, 2017, the Armenian Community in Romania made a special gift for Constanța, as a sign of gratitude for the good relations between Romanians and Armenians. Is about Khacikar (stone cross), a monument specific to Armenian culture, unique in its decorations, made by hand, with care, from a rock formed of solidified lava. The monument, which is made of volcanic rock (tuff), was sculpted in Armenia and was brought to Constanta by boat. This monument demonstrates the friendship of the two peoples, Armenian and Romanian, and has the following bilingual inscription: "This monument is a proof of the centuries-old presence of Armenians in Dobrogea, as well as their gratitude for the hospitality with which they were received. We honor the memory of the forerunners and martyrs of the Armenian people who kept their identity and faith. "

The monument is located on the seafront in the Casino area of ​​Constanța.

If the Armenians from Dobrogea celebrate New Year's Eve on December 31st, Christmas, on the other hand, will be celebrated on the same day as the Epiphany, on January 6th.

Armenian dance, music and clothing

Once settled on Romanian soil, the Armenians adapted to the local life, becoming acquainted, over time, with the customs of the locals, while preserving their own traditions brought from their homelands that were partially lent to their new fellow citizens. In addition to the customs and habits of the native homeland, the Armenian immigrants took with them the folklore of their nation. The most used and also the best preserved monsters of folklore are the folk songs, performed either occasionally at some events and celebrations in the life of the colony, or simply for pleasure. Armenian music and dance interspersed, and most of the time evolved in a special way.

Armenian music is a mixture of local folk music, perhaps best represented by Djivan Gasparyan. Instruments such as duduk, dhol, zurna, and kanun are common in Armenian folk music. Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous for their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. One of the oldest types of Armenian music is Armenian religious singing. Many of these songs are ancient in origin, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by St. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Also, Armenian music is a rhythmic one, which most young Armenians, but not only, consider a true symphony of colors, among the most beautiful.

Traditional dance, practiced in most cases only by men, is called Kochari, but the innovation comes with the participation, so that in some variants women also participate, the dance specific to Armenians having the name Shalakho. Instead, the dance in which only girls participate is called Davigh or Tavigh.

Clothing it is a varied one in terms of colors. The Armenian folk costume is called "taraz" and differs depending on the regions of historical Armenia, for both men and women. The background of each region reflects the social status, customs, traditions of the Armenians who lived there or the influences of those who were somewhat geographically close to other ethnic groups.

cuisine

pomegranate & # 8211 the national fruit of Armenia, an ancient symbol of fertility and abundance, also considered a talisman against the evil eye

Lavash & # 8211 Also known as Armenian bread, it is made after thousands of years, being a very thin, sometimes oval, sometimes rectangular or rolled bread. The wash is baked in the toner oven, according to some very precise rules, usually by a group of women, each of them being responsible for a certain stage, the whole process requiring an efficient coordination between them. A simple dough is made from flour and water, kneaded and spread in very thin sheets that are glued to the walls of the oven with a tool that looks like a pillow and in about 30 seconds the glue is baked and can be removed. An interesting feature of Lavash is that it can be stored for a long time and, even when dry, it can be rehydrated with water and consumed. Lavaş bread was introduced in the UNESCO patrimony as an indisputable value of the Armenian culture.

Basturma & # 8211 Armenian beef pastrami, dried for a long time by the sharp wind blowing from Ararat, a red meat, almost translucent, with an unmistakable aroma given by the spices used in the marinating process. The famous flavor of the basturma is given by a mixture of spices specific to Armenian cuisine called ceimen or ceman, in which fenugreek predominates.

Sugiuc - the Armenian sausage & # 8211Popular throughout the Orient, this dish of minced and very spicy meat is usually made from beef, but we also find recipes that mention pork or even horse meat in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. We find it more often in the form of a hot sausage seasoned with cumin, sumac, garlic, pepper and sometimes with tea. Also known as the Armenian sausage, the sugiuc, like the basturma, requires a lot of skill and careful observation in each phase of production, and everything can take months.

Horovaţ, Şiş kebab or Şaşlâk - Armenian skewers & # 8211 In Armenia, the preparation of meat and vegetables on skewers over a hot embers is called Horovaţ, Şaşlâk or Şiş kebab, the latter being a word of Persian origin. Not absent from any Armenian family party or reunion, for this type of dish each family has special metal skewers, measuring almost a meter, which can generally be purchased from small shops in the vicinity of vegetable and fruit markets. The meat cut into cubes is marinated the night before in various mixtures of spices, pomegranate juice or onion, according to preferences or tradition inherited in that family.

Mantî & # 8211 It is a delicious preparation in the form of dough dumplings filled with a mixture of minced meat and spices, shaped in the form of small boats. They are baked in the oven, seasoned with yogurt (Madzun) or sour cream and garlic and served with a clear, concentrated soup. It is popular especially among the Armenians of the west, from Cilician Armenia, we sometimes meet it with the name of Mantabour (arm.abour = soup).

Hurut - Ear Soup & # 8211 Every year on the occasion of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary at the Hagigadar Monastery in Suceava and in Gherla on the occasion of the feast of St. Gregory the Illuminator, huge boilers are prepared with a ritual soup that is served to all believers. . This is known as ear soup. The main ingredient of this soup is called Hurut and is a product obtained from the condensation of fermented cow's or sheep's milk and its mixture with various aromatic herbs. Hurut is specific to the cuisine of Armenians from the Fortress of Ani, located in the city of Kars, today in Turkey, also known as the "City of 1001 Churches".It seems that this product entered the Romanian lands first in Moldova brought by the Armenians surviving the occupation of the Ani fortress by the Seljuk Turks in 1064. Being a product that could be kept unaltered, it could be taken by merchants. in their long journeys. The greens used to prepare hurut are in one version of the recipe parsley, celery leaves, thyme and another version also mentions dill, larch, tarragon or basil.

Cheeses (Banir) The food of the Armenians has depended since ancient times on the herds of animals and was made up mostly of dairy products. The pastoral way of life has influenced the life of the small rural settlements where, even today, the daily preoccupation revolves around the production of milk, cheese and butter. For centuries, Armenians have survived by eating cheese for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Haţ u banir (Cheese with bread) has been a traditional snack in Armenia for centuries and is eaten at any time of the day even with other dishes. Representative for the cheese segment is the banir or tel banir cover which comes in the form of long strips of cheese woven together. Tel banir is made from sheep's or goat's milk to which black cumin and mahlab are added, a powder obtained from grinding the kernels of wild cherry seeds. Mklaţ Banir is another very popular type of cheese in the Shirak region, similar to Roquefort, with a crumbly consistency and noble mold. An interesting and very rare assortment is motal, which is made according to an ancient recipe in the mountainous region of Zangezour and Artsakh and, which involves the maturation of sheep's cheese together with aromatic herbs, in bellows called tiks made of lambskin. . In mountain areas, these lambskin bellows are also used to store food, being easy to handle and transport without the risk of breaking, and in some villages, even wine is kept in the bellows.

Harissa & # 8211 It is a food with ritual significance, which is prepared by boiling the korkot for a long time, a barley of wheat, together with fatty meat of sheep or chicken, until it reaches the consistency of a pasta. It seems that the name Harissa comes from the Akkadian harasu, which means to mix, in Armenian being harnel, both having common roots. Legend has it that the most important Armenian saint, Saint Gregory the Illuminator, wanted to feed the poor people in a village, but there was not enough sheep meat and he decided to add wheat over the meat, but they found that it stuck to the bottom of the boilers. Then the saint would have said: Harer! (Mix!). Thus, it is said that the name of Harisa would come from the exhortation of St. Gregory the Illuminator.
In modern Armenia, Harissa has become a symbolic dish and is used to commemorate those who fell in battle on Mount Musa Dagh.

Since ancient times, bee honey has been a highly prized food and is often considered the food of the gods and used in traditional medicine or religious rituals. For a long time, until the advent of sugar and its popularization by the Arabs, honey was among the few foods with which it could be sweetened. The empirical means of raising bees and the existing flora in the country resulted in obtaining a small amount of honey, which gave it a high value, being generally consumed by the aristocratic class, being more often used as a currency. In Armenia, beekeeping and the honey trade have occupied an important place in the concerns of the inhabitants of this country since ancient times. Armenian merchants sold honey-filled crucifers in neighboring countries in exchange for other products. Being a country where honey was produced, the population's access to this food was easier. Thus, many dishes of Armenian cuisine, mostly desserts, contain, among other things, honey. At the Armenian table, the dessert includes, in addition to other prepared sweet dishes and a lot of fresh or candied fruit, various pastries. A special dessert prepared by armence is called a cake. Every housewife brags about her cake recipe that can contain nuts, fruits, chocolate, meringue, all reaching up to seven layers. Some cakes are filled in the middle with cream and are topped with fruit on top.

Anoushabour - anoush = dulce, abour = soup and was probably sweetened with molasses, grape syrup, or honey. Later, the Armenians associated it with the religious significance of the New Year and serve it at the end of the Christmas or New Year meal.

Gatah & # 8211 Pronounced Gatah or Katah as we refer to eastern or western Armenia, is a very popular pastry, found in several versions either in the form of small rolls of dough kneaded with butter and sugar, filled with usually with butter or walnuts, either in flat form, specific to the villages of Garni or Gehard, with dough ornaments and walnut filling. In some versions, a small coin is placed in Gata before it is baked, the finder being blessed for the rest of the year.

Halva The Armenian halva is prepared for the ceremonies of commemoration of the dead, but also as a dessert.

During the winter holidays, women prepare fish, sauerkraut in vine leaves, lentil soup and a traditional sweet - anchovy, prepared from boiled wheat, with orange peel, lemon, raisins, fig jam

Another custom is that Armenians also eat a lot of fish or pilaf with raisins. It should be noted that rice symbolizes the fruits of the earth, and raisins represent the faithful. All this can be sprinkled with red wine.

Macedo (named in Romania and & # 8222Romanian Macedonians & # 8221,Macedonian-, macedoneni latini, macedono-vlahi or, more popularly, Macedonians) are a branch of Eastern Latinity, along with Daco-Romanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians.

Far from being a homogeneous entity throughout history, the three major groups of Aromanians in Greece show some differentiation, most likely due to the external influences to which they were exposed. The differences between Grămușteni, Fărșiloţi and Pindeni are cultural, linguistic and, to some extent, clothing.

The Aromanians are the brothers of the Romanians from the North Danube, who have the same mother - Latin. The Aromanians and Romanians, together with the Megleno-Romanians, the Istro-Romanians, the Vlachs from medieval Serbia, Bosnia and Croatia, the Vlachs from medieval Poland and Bohemia, form that civilization of shepherds, known as the Vlachs. The law or custom of the Vlachs, the bellows cheese, the system of gifts and taxes, the customs and folklore, but especially the Latin language, due to which we got the name of Vlachs, were common to us. Voluntary or planned assimilations led to the reduction of the space inhabited by the Vlachs in today's Romania and to some Romanesque islands in the Balkans. Regardless of the identity that the Aromanians and other Vlachs from the Balkans assume, the common origin with the Romanians from the North Danube is indisputable. Of course, we must respect everyone's right to define their own identity.

Balkan history, very poor in historiographical evidence, has given way to many assumptions by launching many theories, many of them politically influenced. Most authors regard the Aromanians as the Romanized descendants of the ancient Thracians or Illyrians. From the shores of the Aegean Sea to the shores of the Adriatic Sea, from Lake Ohrid, the springs of Vardar and the Rhodope Mountains and even below Mount Olympus "Elimb" they are native. Their historical, economic and cultural evolution was greatly influenced by the relief, the geopolitics of the region (the interests of the great powers in the area) and their physical and moral features.

It is not a miracle that they have kept their identity, it is the result of a permanent process of perpetuating the values, passed down from generation to generation, values ​​on which Europe today is based. The three pillars of Europeanism: Athens, Rome and Jerusalem, more precisely Greek philosophy, Roman law and Christianity born in the city of Israel, are all part of the Armenian being.

Ethnogenesis

Ever since Philip II, king of Macedonia, united all the shepherd tribes of the Gramostea, Pind and Rhodope massifs, from the territories between the shores of the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the southern banks of the Danube to the end of the 1913 Balkan War. , when Macedonia was divided between Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania, a people was formed that carried and preserved the values ​​of Greek, Latin and Byzantine civilizations.

Their historical, economic and cultural evolution was greatly influenced by the relief, the geopolitics of the region (the interests of the great powers in the area) and their physical and moral features.

  • the origin of the Latin language
  • belonging to Orthodox Christianity
  • they played an important role in the struggles for national liberation throughout the Balkan Peninsula
  • they played an important role in south-eastern European trade and transport
  • important function in raising animals (sheep, horses).

Written testimonies about Aromanians:

& # 8222Carriers of the Roman-Byzantine culture, the Aromanians have a determined taste and the tendency for a better life and especially. There is no doubt that they were the ones who introduced those habits among the Slavic peoples of the Balkans. Also, their influence on material culture is very great. & # 8221 & # 8211 Jovan Cvijic

The survival of the ancient Balkan civilization in the Aromanians can also be seen from the contrast that exists in terms of order and cleanliness between the Aromanian mountain settlements and the settlements of other coexisting peoples, including the Greeks. The superiority of the Aromanians is noticed by all travelers or ethnographers. The French historian Pouqueville, the consul of Emperor Napoleon I at Ianina, was amazed by the spirit of order that prevailed in the Wallachian families and cities.

English Colonel Martin Leake notes: & # 8222Many of the Wallachian communes, although located in lands where the necessities of life occur only in two months of the year, are still the best located and most prosperous cities in Greece & # 8230 Economic sobriety and their application to the industry gives them a great advantage over the Greeks & # 8221.

The perfect combination of refinement, elegance, sobriety and practicality, this is the Armenian dress. The living environment in the mountainous relief areas as well as the fact that the main concern was raising sheep and the raw material used for clothing was wool. The wool was processed in the family and the clothes were made of fabrics by tailors (araftsa).

The dress consists of superimposing an entire series of pieces, of different lengths, over the white shirt up to the knee or close to the ankle. It is a compositional principle called by Eva Nienhaldt, a good connoisseur of costume problems, & # 8222the principle of overlaps ”. The mentioned characteristic of the Balkan costume, proves to be defining in the case of the Armenian costume being one of the criteria of beauty in the Armenian folk art. The expressiveness determined by this way of constructing the Armenian costume is revealed only during the wearing, use of the costume.

Viewed as an artistic phenomenon, the costume must therefore be considered both as a whole and in its constituent elements. The Armenian costume, both in its masculine and feminine versions, consists of numerous and different pieces, intended to cover, each of them, certain parts of the human body. The flawless combination, in a coherently articulated ensemble, of some pieces, however heterogeneous through material, color, cuts, decoration, proves a security of the plastic sense. The Aromanian men's suit was entirely white. Beyond the fact that a costume of a population of shepherds, made of wool, was natural to preserve the natural color of the raw material, the preference for white would be due to its ethical connotations, its symbolism, which the folklore and customs of Armenians reveal and namely, that of prosperity and purity. The woman's suit, consisting of three or four long garments, overlaps in steps. They wore a hat on their heads.

The structure of the men's suit delimits two strong volumes. The typical cut of the men's shirt with the unusual size of both the sleeves and the part from the waist down. Thanks to an exceptional cut, the part from the waist down, laid in the plane, forms a perfect circle, while the top acquires an imposing appearance due to the long, split sleeves.

The dress is decorated by applying găitanas, a procedure that, despite its simplicity, allows the realization of very complicated motifs. The ornaments complete the traditional costume. They are made of silver. The element of costume on which jewelry is mainly applied is first of all the hat, which involves a large amount of jewelry, arranged according to a fixed scheme. The port has zonal features, these features consist of pattern, color, ornaments. Engagement or wedding dresses require a certain pattern and color

In the traditional women's costume, the white cotton shirt is visible only at the bottom, more precisely the lace ornaments. Over it is worn plisirna or cumaşlu, a sarafan with many folds at the back or in closed awnings with buttons on the bust and spent on the lap over which the lap (apron) is placed. The mint wears over the pleats. They wore a hat on their heads. It was made of woolen cloth and had a metal circle on the top, usually of antique silver, on which were also coins made of silver. The hat is richly decorated on the forehead. Knitted woolen stockings cover the feet up to the knees, those for each day were simple or slightly decorated, but the holiday ones were decorated with great skill, a perfect combination of colors and materials next to the woolen thread were used "yarns". Women's accessories are ornate white handkerchiefs, knives, beaded or silver belts, bracelets and beads.

For men, over the white shirt, which has a lot of pleats from the waist down, the skirt is put on, both knee-length. When she gets dressed. The men's hats were black and not too big, made of lambskin. The indispensable accessories for men are the knife (sewing), the white handkerchief, the belt, the hook.

Traditions and customs are a set of conceptions, customs and beliefs that are historically established within social or national groups and that are transmitted orally from generation to generation, constituting for each social group its specific feature. Ancient customs have loads of value and profound meanings concerning man's life, his relations with nature and the surrounding world, and various aspects of its order.

For Aromanians, the most important moment of life is when a new family is founded. The little one is traditional.

Aromanian dances

Dance is an artistic means of expression, through a succession of rhythmic, plastic movements and body expression performed in melodic rhythms.

For Armenians, dance is characterized by style and originality compared to the dance of other peoples with whom they lived and compared to the Romanian ones. Armenians love dancing a lot, they perform it with enthusiasm and mastery.

The Armenian dance takes place in an open circle, the "choir" is led "pulled" by certain people, depending on the event. "Caplu" is replaced during the dance several times by different people. The most grandiose moment is when the choir (corlu) has three "dipli", three open, concentric circles, when all the participants enter the choir.

The moment when all the members of the community shake hands, the dance represents the symbol of twinning. The leader performs virtuous movements, turns, twists (demonstrates safety and mastery) and presents his leadership skills. The tail - the end of the chorus, is active, dynamic, makes spinning movements in the middle of the semicircle and the last person twists the "narthex" & # 8211 a snake made of small, brightly colored beads.

The dances are many and varied, with rhythmic diversity of steps, distinct body movements. Participants hold hands, hands down, forming a large open circle. Traditionally, the game is led by men in the order of age and then women and girls by age. The attire of the participants is sober, the stringing in the semicircle is perfect and the cadence of the steps takes place regularly. There are no characteristic squeals and shouts. When there are many participants, the choir has the shape of a coiled snake.

Old-fashioned games are slow, swaying and highlight the beauty of the costumes. Strong games like "ciamcu" are lively, played by a small group of men. The one at the head of the choir performs original choreographic movements. Every dance seems like a ritual. The specific dance for women and girls, in which the steps and movements of the body highlight the costume and they wave ornate white handkerchiefs, is a dance that combines candor and elegance. Many dances have low participation, they are interesting due to the way they are performed and various choreographic movements.

There are two superstitions about how to lead the choir: the beginning of the choir must always be oriented outwards and the tail inwards and at the wedding the flag is not played, the "flag" by the bride and groom.

Contemporary dance & # 8211 Authentic values ​​are not affected by the phenomenon of old-fashioned. "Corlu armânescu" is found at country celebrations in Aromanian villages, in cities, at the bride and groom's home, in modern restaurants, in nightclubs, at shows and social events. The value of a phenomenon is found in its permanence. How is the Armenian choir played now? It has been best preserved in historical Macedonia, the region of northern Greece and among the Aromanians in Romania. For some, the Armenian choir may seem monotonous, but this performance of the choir participants is a parade of group members to the rhythm of the music. Order is thus accepted as a cosmic, eternal concept. The arrangement in the choir (choir) works according to certain criteria. At the wedding, the "plow" (rule) stipulates that the great father-in-law and the family, the nose and the family, the little in-laws and the family, the bride and groom, each in turn, in order of their importance in the family, take over the choir. It is also common for engaged girls, young brides, young girls and boys, even children to be invited by family members to take over the leadership of the choir (choir), being supported by those who follow them in the choir. It is a real symbol of expressing family solidarity, they are given confidence and support, to be at the forefront.

An important phenomenon is that the traditional Sunday choir (corlu) from the center of the locality (misu-hori) was taken by the Aromanians with them to the city. For a start, after many people moved to the cities, an Armenian dance evening (Armenian choir) was organized once a year at restaurants. For many years, they have been held every month, usually on the last Friday night. Thus, young Aromanians meet, get to know each other and live together the joy of Armenian music and dance.

The bands of Aromanian music, the organizers of these events, managed to ensure in the urban environment, a continuity of the manifestation of our traditional folklore. Until the 2000s, Aromanian associations, Aromanian people of culture, Aromanian personalities, who may have had the leverage and even the moral obligation to take individual or associated actions to preserve Aromanian folklore and individuality and did not do so. It has been a long time since communism can be an excuse. Great is the joy of grandparents and parents when their grandchildren or children participate in the Armenian choir, a joy that we hope will be experienced by many future generations.

Macedonian cuisine, rich in variety and aromas, is representative of the Balkans, with strong Turkish, Greek, but also Middle Eastern and, to a lesser extent, Italian, Mediterranean and Hungarian influences. Macedonian cuisine is best known for its use of red bell pepper, beans and pastries. The relatively warm climate of the country offers excellent growing conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits. Macedonian cuisine also stands out for the diversity and quality of its dairy products, wines and local alcoholic beverages such as rakija. Tavče gravče (Romanian bean stew equivalent) is considered the national food of Macedonia. A gastronomic dish not missing from their table is pita, meaning a kind of pie. Aromanca Zoie Carabas told us how to prepare it: & # 8222Pie sheets are made, in which various fillings are put (nettles, spinach, stevia, leeks, cheese). It looks like a well-known pizza. Another popular food, especially in summer, is homemade peppers (baked peppers with sheep cheese) & # 8221. & # 8222Chicken with salad & # 8221 (well seasoned, with garlic, cheese, ham and yogurt sauce), & # 8222tarator & # 8221 (a kind of cucumber salad with yogurt, garlic and mint leaves) & & # 8221, & # 8222corns with poppy seeds, cumin and sesame & # 8221 & # 8211 are just some of the dishes that give uniqueness to the Aromanian cuisine!

The presence of the Greeks on the territory of the Danube and the Sea has been signaled since antiquity both by historical sources and by the writings and diaries of travelers who passed through Dobrogea in different eras.

In 657-656 BC, according to the chronicle of Eusebius, the settlers of Miletus founded on the shores of Lake Sinoe the Greek fortress of Istros, called by the Romans Histria. In the second half of the 6th century BC. Hr, according to the Pseudo-Skymnos spring, the Milesian colonists founded today's Tomis-Constanta. In the south of Dobrogea, the Greeks from Heracleea Pontica settled, founding the city of Callatis-Mangalia today. In 1926, Romanian archaeologists discovered another Greek fortress on the shores of the former Gulf of Razelm, near Jurilovca, called Orgame, attested since the 7th century BC in the writings of Hecataius of Miletus. Since ancient times, the Pontic fortresses, as active and prosperous ports, were populated by all the ethnic groups of Pontus and by the ethnic groups of the entire Mediterranean basin, but Greeks and Getae were the most numerous.

The poet Ovid is the first to mention the two nations in his poems: & # 8222You want to know, maybe, who the Tomitans are / and what kind of habits are seen around me / With the Getae in the mix are the Greeks here , / But the savage Getae overwhelm the Greeks. & # 8221

The gymnasium protected by Hermes and Herakles, the public banquets, the theater of Histria, where a temple had been inaugurated, the basilicas of Tomis and Callatis, the bas-reliefs and statues finely worked in stone, marble or bronze, the funerary epitaphs, prove the richness of spiritual life and the true Hellenism of these colonies.

Little Scythia and its metropolis, Tomis, gave the Christian world important philosophers and scholars, such as John Cassian, John Maxentius, Epitropus Theotimus I, Dionysius the Little (author of the chronology of the era of the birth of Christ). After the Aurelian retreat, the strategic importance of Dobrogea increased. During the reign of Emperor Diocletian (284-305), it will be separated from Lower Moesia into an independent region called Scythia Minor with its capital at Tomis. In the new province, where the Apostle Andrew had preached at the beginning of the millennium, the anti-Christian persecutions of Diocletian, a follower of polytheistic traditionalism, began. A large number of martyrs are mentioned in the Pontic fortresses. Four of them, of Greek origin, Kiril, Kindeas, Tasios and Euprasis are known from an inscription in Greek on a limestone block. In the 4th century AD, Zotikos, Attalos, Kamasis and Filippos were also martyred, whose names remained written in red paint, in Greek, in the old basilica of Niculitel, where the crypt with their bones was found. The great traveler and talented memorialist who was Evliya Celebi (1651) appreciates that the inhabitants of Mangalia are Greeks from Asia Minor. John Gninsky, the palatine of Hehn, passing through Dobrogea around 1677-1678, describes Isaccea & # 8222where most of its inhabitants are Greeks, Armenians, Bulgarians and Turks & # 8221. Greeks and Jews also meet at Babadag in 1709, the Swedish pastor Michel Enesman. In 1780, Poland's agent at the High Gate, W. Czrzanowski, says that: & # 8221Constanta was one of the most important ports, where Greek ships come. He found here two merchant ships from Constantinople that belonged to Greeks. The city has a very beautiful location & # 8221

In 1856 the provisions of the Treaty of Paris had as a consequence the increase of the Greek element in Constanta. In 1840 there were 40 Greek families registered in Constanta with 3 grocery stores, 2 butchers, a bread oven, a shoemaker and 2 inns. In 1859 we meet 500 Greek families, most of them merchants. In Tulcea, in 1864, the population was 30,000, the most numerous being the Greeks, followed by the Romanians, Russians and Bulgarians. In Sulina, the Greek element predominates (2500 out of 6000 inhabitants). In 1866, when the first church was built in this city, the Romanians separated from the Greeks & # 8222 to whom they left the old church & # 8221. A Greek diaspora historian considers Venice, Trieste, Sulina and Odessa to be more Greek than Italian, Romanian or Russian cities.

Apart from trade, the Greeks - mostly from the archipelago and the Ionian Islands & # 8211 were navigators, shipowners and owners of a large part of the small town trade. In Silistra, a school and a church functioned in the 19th century.

With the arrival of the French mission in Constanta in 1855 for the construction of the Rasova-Constanta road, known as the "French Road", we meet Greeks who worked on this project, and who later settled in Constanta. Then came the English, who through the Company & # 8222Danube and Black Sea railway Co & # 8221 start the construction of the Cernavoda railway & # 8211 Constanta, the construction of the Port and 400 homes. Most of the houses in Constanta were made by Greek masons who came from Saranta Eklision, Thrace. Greek workers also came from the towns of Anhialos, Mesemvria and Vasilikos in the Burgas Bay area. Zakinthos Manouras was the director of the English Railways construction site.

& # 8222In 1858, the rebirth of the city really begins ”& # 8211 says Manesis & # 8211 and with it and the Greek element. The Greek consul in Varna, Andrei Pappadopoulos - Vretos, came to Constanta in 1859, which he found with a population of 3,000 souls, of which 500 are Greek subjects. In 1873, Sambert, a member of the Geographical Society of Paris, visiting the city, found 3-4,000 inhabitants, of whom 1,000 were Greeks, small merchants. In 1879, out of 4,000 inhabitants, the Greeks predominated, almost all merchants.

At the time of Dobrogea's transition to Romania, the Greeks in Constanta declared, in an open letter, their desire to be governed by the Romanian authorities and not by the Bulgarian ones.

Between 1878-1880, the first mayor of Constanta, as a city part of Romania, was Anton Alexandridis, who was also elected in 1882-1883. Other Greek mayors of Constanta were S. Schinas (1897-1899) and G. Menderkus (1904). Greek workers participate in the construction of the great bridge at Cernavoda (1890-1895) and in the great works of the port (1895-1909)

Until 1913, Greeks from the islands of Chios or Lesbos continued to come to Constanta, from western Thrace, southern Macedonia, Epirus, regions still under Ottoman rule to the Balkan wars. In 1913, families of persecuted Greeks from Bulgaria will settle in Constanta and Dobrogea. Many other families will seek refuge in Constanta after the disastrous defeat of Greek forces in Asia Minor in the summer of 1922.

Before the Second World War, in Constanta lived, according to some sources, between 6000 and 8000 Greeks, and the Community had an important patrimony consisting of school, hospital, theater, church, buildings, land.

The activity of the Greek Community was resumed in January 1990.

Today, the Greek Community & # 8222Elpis & # 8221 has about 2,500 members.

It carries out its activity both inside the & # 8222Elpis & # 8221 Theater, returned by the Romanian state in 1998, and in other offices in the process of being returned.

Greek dancesknow

Dance has played an important role in the lives of Greeks throughout history. In ancient Greece, dance was given special attention. In his writings, Plato expressed his belief in the virtues of dance, claiming that a man who does not know how to dance is uneducated and without manners. During the Byzantine period, despite the direction imposed by the church, people danced on personal or public holidays. During the Turkish occupation, the Greeks continued to dance and created new dances dedicated to revolutionary heroes and the desire for freedom, such as the dance called Zaloggos.

Today, Greece is probably one of the very few countries in Europe and even in the world where traditional dances are still kept alive, interacting with everyday life.

The most important dances are: Sirtaki (is a folk dance of Greek origin, choreographed by Giorgos Provias for the film Zorba the Greek (1964). It is a recent Greek folk dance and a mixture of slow and fast movements of the hasapiko dance. The dance and musical accompaniment composed by Míkis Theodorakis are also called Zorba's dance), Dances (The Italians, occupying the Greek islands, called it Ballos after a similar Italian dance, but the original name comes from the Greek, from the verb & # 8222balizo & # 8221 = to dance alone), Kalamatiano (It is one of the variants of syrto. Syrto means crawling dance and is a dance from antiquity), Tsamikos (This dance is probably named after Tsames of Epirus, but some say it is named after the clothing of the mountain warriors during the War of Independence called & # 8222kleftes & # 8221), Zeibekiko (It is a famous solo dance throughout the Greek world. The name comes from zeibek, a people who were neither Greek nor Turkish and who lived on the hills near the cities of Smyrna and Prousa in Asia Minor. Both Greeks and Turks learned the dance of to the Zeibek people and developed their own national style), Kerkiraikos (is originally from the island of Corfu, which is known in Greece as Kerkira), Hasapiko (the butchers 'dance - this was the butchers' dance in Constantinople during the Byzantine period, when it was known as Makellarikos, from the pure word for butcher), Leriko (It is a dance from the island of Leros. Original, after Leriko. The music became faster and faster, and so Sousta Dodekaneza appeared. Today, there are separate dances. At this dance, the hands are held in a cross, each dancer having his hands either under or above the hands of the dancers next to them), Sousta Dodekaneza (represents a family of dances from the Dodecanese Islands & # 8211 unrelated to the sousta of Crete or Macedonia. The name means spring (spring), describing the engaging rhythm of this dance), Ikariotikos, which is sometimes called simply Kariotikos, comes from the island of Ikaria.

Greek costumesetyou

Costumes are a beautiful part of a very rich culture. Some of their characteristics can be found in Byzantine and Hellenic costumes. In Romania, the most common Greek folk costume is the one from the mainland, Attica. It is the most popular, not only in the Diaspora, but also in Greece. It gained popularity during the War of Independence of 1821. In memory of the outfit imposed by King Otho, the royal guard of Athens, known as Evzoni or Tsoliades, wears a short skirt & # 8211 fustanella, embroidered vest, whose The sleeves are cut and fastened on the back to make the movements easier, the wide-sleeved shirt and the famous shoes with big black tassel & # 8211 tsarouhia. Traditional men's costumes consist of: poukamiso - shirt, foustanella & # 8211 skirt or kilt, segouni & # 8211 embroidered vest, kaltses & # 8211 white stockings, gonatares & # 8211 garters for legs, zonari - belt, tsarouhia & # 8211 with tassel, fesi or koukos & # 8211 hat, fes and from decorative elements and jewelry. The most remarkable element of the Attica costume is the colored silk thread with which the white cotton shirt is embroidered. In women's costumes, silk is most often purple, red or gold, and embroidery consists of geometric shapes. Over the shirt is worn a vest, most often made of wool, which can be short or long, often the wool from which the vest is made was made at home, white or black. In some areas, instead of wool, we will find velvet vests. On the head, the women from this region wear a white scarf that has white tassels on the edges and is handmade. The women's costumes consist of: poukamiso & # 8211 long shirt, segouni & # 8211 wool vest, fousta & # 8211 long white skirt, bodice & # 8211 embroidered wool apron, aprons & # 8211 scarf (gauze me tis foundes & # 8211 8211 white scarf with tassels), papoutsia or tsarouhia - shoes and decorative objects for the neck. The costumes can also be influenced by the Island of Crete, costumes from Pontus, but also from other areas of Greece.

Greek cuisine describes the attitude of the Greeks towards life and food. The ingredients and styles of Greek cuisine were established more than 3,000 years ago. There are many famous Greek chefs in history, such as Thimbron of Athens, Archestratus who wrote the first known cookbook (330 BC), Soteriades the Wise who claimed the quality of being prepared dishes for different moods and ages for the young, for lovers, for the elderly, and for ancient philosophers. Food is a ritual, it represents love, spirituality, philosophy, an experience that must be shared and enjoyed in the company of family and friends. This is the experience of having dinner with the Greeks. The notion of sharing and giving is of great importance and is called "kerasma." The food should be blessed each time before the meal ritual, starting with the wish "Kalli Orexi" and followed by "Stin ighia Sas" (Good Lust and In Your Health) and cannot be called a Greek meal unless a glass of wine is served. or ouzo. Naturally the table is accompanied by Greek music in the background to complete the experience. In the words of the ancient philosopher and historian Hesiod, who wrote the poem Works and Days: "Respect properly, moderation in everything is the best thing" (Pan metro ariston) - all in moderation & # 8230 this is the secret of a long and healthy life ! The Greek culinary style is distinguished by the spices used to a greater extent than in other cuisines in the Mediterranean area: oregano, mint, basil, thyme, fennel, cumin, dill, bay leaf, onion, garlic. Many Greek recipes use "sweet" spices along with assorted meats: cinnamon, cloves taste Greek stews mark a Persian and Arabic influence. Usually, the meat used to prepare various typical recipes is lamb and beef, more than pork and chicken. They use olives, feta cheese, vine leaves, pumpkin and yogurt and a lot of olive oil. Sweets are generally made with walnuts and honey.

The Greek delicacies are the following:

Mezze is a generic term for snacks, served with wine, ouzo or tsipouro.

Among the best known are boureki (vegetable and meat pies), spanakopita (spinach pie, feta, onion, eggs and spices), melitzanosalata (eggplant salad), saganaki (fried cheese), taramosalata (caviar mixed with potatoes boiled, or bread, olive oil, and lemon juice), dolmades (vine sarmale stuffed with rice, vegetables, or meat), skordalia, and tzatziki.

Russians - Lipovans

Being an ethnic group of Slavic origin, the Lipovan Russians are the descendants of the starovers, ie followers of the old Russian Orthodox faith, who left their homeland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries following the schism in the Russian Official Church, as a tragic consequence of the reform. cult initiated by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (father of Peter the Great) and Patriarch Nikon of Russia (1652-1658). The first documentary attestations of the presence of the starovers (those of old faith, also called staroobreadțî & # 8211 of the old rite) on the Romanian territory date from the period 1724-1740. They settled in the localities of Moldova, where they were called Lipovans.

In Dobrogea, which was part of the Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 18th century, the Cossacks from the Don from the army of the ataman Ignat Nekrasov also settled, the one who organized the social life of the Cossacks with rules contained in the "Ignat Covenant". , they being called here nekrasovțî (nekrasoviți). From them, the name of Lake Razelm & # 8211 Razin from Dobrogea has been preserved to this day, named in memory of the leader of the Cossack uprising from the 17th century, Stepan Razin. Most of the Dobrogean necrasovites remained in the Delta and in its adjacent areas, being forced by circumstances to change only their name, accepting the Lipovan ethnonym ”.

Among the customs preserved to this day, the best preserved Maslena & # 8211 Maslenița (Cheese and Milk Week, Lăsata Secului) & # 8211 a celebration of the spirit, but also of goodies, full of good cheer, being the week before entering the Easter fast. Dairy dishes are prepared at that time: dumplings with cheese (“vareniki”), pancakes with cheese (“blinî”), pie with cheese, pirouettes (“piroghi”) with cheese, etc. In some localities, especially in Dobrogea, groups walk the Lăsata Secului on the streets performing various cheerful songs.

Faith The Russian staroveri of Romania is an old-fashioned Christian-Orthodox rite, preserved since the official Christianization of Kievan Rus' in 988 by Prince Vladimir Sveatoslavici (980-1015). Even today, services are held in the churches of the Starovers in Church Slavonic, and the calendar used is the Julian (established by order of Julius Caesar, in 46 BC) and not the Gregorian (drawn up at the end of the sixteenth century, by order of the pope). Gregory XIII and currently adopted in all European countries in Romania, he was officially introduced in 1919).

Referring to the port of the Lipovan Russians, it is kept, especially in some localities in Dobrogea, only when going to church. It is obligatory for women to enter the sanctuary with their heads covered with handkerchiefs (usually flowered), to have long and wide skirts tied with a special multicolored belt (polka dots), woven from wool and tassels at the ends, and the bust to she was wearing a long-sleeved blouse. The hair of married women is braided in two tails covered under a scarf with kicika (a special "tichie"), and unmarried women catch their hair in a ponytail, being tied with multicolored ribbons. Blouses and cuts can be made of the same material from which the skirt is made. Elderly women wear rosaries to church & # 8211 lestovka. Men should be dressed for church in long-sleeved shirts, tied in the middle with a belt, and in long pants.

Men's suit is represented by:

  • rubarsca: a wide shirt, made of canvas or silk, without collar and with ribbon, straight cut, with a wrist on one side of the neck, colored in vivid tones
  • polka dots: very narrow belt, made of wool in different colors and finished at the ends with tassels that heated the shirts over the middle
  • pedeuca (paddiovca): a long coat of dark blue cloth worn over clothes
  • fishing suit: made of leather or waterproof canvas, treated with boiled linseed oil.

Women's suit is represented by:

  • love: skirt, made of silk, velvet and thin woolen fabrics
  • cofta, cutaveica, cufaica: blouses, made of brightly colored materials
  • belt: made of wool, finished with tassels and with which a bag is attached
  • lestovca: mataniile, made of leather, with different decorations.

Occupations Lipovan Russians are: fishing (for those in Dobrogea, especially those in the Danube Delta, for whom fish is their “everyday” food), gardening and viticulture (especially for those in Moldova, which still supply with vegetables, fruits and vegetables, the agri-food markets in the cities in the area, especially those in Târgu Frumos & # 8211, Iași County), agriculture, trade, various crafts. We remember, as a traditional craft, painting icons in Byzantine style. Iconic painters and Russian church painters from Lipova have managed to pass on this craft to this day. An almost forgotten profession is that of marangos. There are still a few people who still make boats or make nets, fishing tools, wicker baskets or mats.

Gastronomy

Fish borscht, Potato meatballs, Blinî (Pancakes with urda or cheese), Kashnik or Pșovnik (Rice pudding), Vareniki (Colțunași with cheese) are the traditional dishes of the Russians-Lipovans.

Tthe Tartars

The Tatars from Dobrogea number about 20,000-25,000 people and are the descendants of the Tatars from the Golden Horde inn in neighboring Bugeac and Crimea, colonized here. In Romania, they are politically allied with their Turkish co-religionists and send a deputy to the Romanian Parliament. Among the Dobrogean settlements, the city of Medgidia, famous for its mosque "Abdul Medgid" has a significant concentration of local Tartars. In many localities in Constanța and Tulcea counties there are many windows. Some of them were built many years ago, having historical value (the mosque in Mangalia), others being built more recently, especially after the Revolution of & # 821789. The Esmahan Sultan Mosque in Mangalia is the oldest mosque in Dobrogea, dating from 1456. It is currently part of the state's cultural heritage and is being restored.

Tatars, an ethnic group speaking Turkish, are present on the current territory of Romania since the 13th century. According to the 2011 census, 20,464 people declared themselves Tartars, most of them being Crimean Tartars from Constanța County. The Tartars are the main representatives of Islam in Romania.

After the union of Dobrogea with Romania in 1878, a new era began for the Tartars, creating institutions of public instruction, national culture and Islamic worship. Among them, the Muslim Seminary originally operated in Babadag and was transferred in 1901 to Medgidia.
Dobrogea Tatars have created their own culture inspired by history and traditions. among others, the national holidays & # 8211 & # 8222Nawrez & # 8221 and & # 8222Kidirlez & # 8221, as well as the religious ones & # 8211 & # 8222Kurban Bayrami & # 8221 and & # 8222Ramazan Bayrami & # 8221, widespread in the Turkish-Tatar world it is among the themes of the first significance.
In time, some of the Dobrogean Tatars, few in number, will move to other areas in Romania (Bucharest, Brasov).

Democratic Union of Turkish - Muslim Tartars in Romania is the only organization that has represented, for 25 years, the Tatar community in Romania.

After a period of almost half a century, during which time we suffered with the majority population, with the Revolution of December 1989 we acquired a freedom of identity and religion to which perhaps few hoped.

UDTTMR was and remains the only organization officially recognized by the Romanian state that represents the Tartars in Romania.

According to the 2011 Population Census, 20,282 citizens declared themselves Tartars in Romania. Out of the desire, but also the need to have a more objective image on the number of members of the Tatar community, UDTTMR also initiated a parallel counting after which the number of ethnic Tartars was estimated at about 30,000. This difference is due to the fact that both among the majority population and among the community, we are still dealing with trends of uniformity of two communities whose only common denominator is religion: the Tatar and Turkish communities. In this sense, with the support of the Romanian state, which has recognized the two ethnic groups as independent since historical times, we manage to impose ourselves more and more from an identity point of view, through the multitude of projects carried out through UDTTMR.

Most Romanian citizens of Tatar origin are settled in the Dobrogea area (Constanța and Tulcea counties).

An important step has also been taken in promoting the Tatar language. For the first time since its establishment, Radio T also listens to traditional Tatar music, and the union has over time published books and textbooks in the Tatar language in considerable editions. Also, UDTTMR prints calendars every year that reach all Tatar families in Dobrogea but also CDs with traditional Tatar music (volumes I and II), performed by soloists from the community. Also in the spirit of reviving traditions, UDTTMR resumed the organization of tepres, the first such event taking place, after more than 40 years, in June 2014. Both the 2014 edition and the 2015, 2016 and 2017 number of participants it was impressive, each time, over 3,000 community members participating in the traditional country celebration).

The Community School has become a tradition for UDTTMR, it carries out its activity both at the headquarters and at the level of the branches. In view of the demand from the community, in addition to Tatar language courses, English and mathematics courses are also held at the Community School. Also in terms of education, we must mention other extensive activities, such as "We reward value, we recognize excellence" project in which, so far, have been awarded students of Tatar ethnicity who have achieved outstanding results at school Olympics, but also the awarding of Tatar teachers.

The activities carried out by UDTTMR have an exclusively official character, being dedicated to all Tartars in Romania. Most of the activities were and still are the cultural ones, these being famous both among the Tatar community, but also among the majority population, thanks to the very large number of participants.

The International Festival of Dance, Song and Turkish Folk Port - Tatar, reached its XXIII edition in 2017, brought together every year ensembles from different parts of the world, and about 6,000 spectators in the two evenings of the show. The International Festival of Dance, Song and Turkish Folk Port - Tatar is every year the largest cultural event organized by UDTTMR, an event in which it participates with ensembles in Romania and ensembles from different parts of the world.

Along with the festival, every year UDTTMR organized extensive events on the Day of the Tatar Language (May 5), the Feast of the Tatar Ethnicity (December 13), the "Yașar Memedemin" Festival, Ramazan Bayram, Qurban Bayram, Nawrez and other religious or secular holidays of Tartars. Also, in recent years, UDTTMR has laid the foundations for new cultural projects, such as the Tatar Music Festival "Sebat Husein" and the Festival "Gevat Rashid", but also a series of culinary festivals to promote and present traditional Tatar food, organizing numerous events. at the level of subsidiaries.

Another important goal for UDTTMR is to promote personalities from the Tatar community, organizing events that provided an opportunity to meet special guests with community members.

UDTTMR also has a sustained activity in terms of strengthening diplomatic relations. In this context, representatives of different countries have, over time, been guests of the Tatar community on the occasion of various actions.

Every year, UDTTMR has published numerous books to give new generations the opportunity to become familiar with their mother tongue.

The series of events organized by UDTTMR is completed by the traditional Tatar-Kureș fighting competitions, which take place every year from May 1 to the beginning of September, the last such competition taking place in Constanța and notable for the magnitude of the event and the value awards. All these actions have been found so far in the annual calendar of UDTTMR, they become a tradition for the Tatar community in Romania.

These actions were joined by others organized in collaboration with the Turkish Democratic Union of Romania, the Consulate of the Republic of Turkey in Constanța and the Turkish Cultural Center "Yunus Emre" on the occasion of holidays such as Children's Day in the Turkish world (April 23) or partners such as "Ovidius" University, a reliable and promising partner in research and study of the history of the Tartars.

Starting with 2014, based on a partnership with the Faculty of History and Political Sciences, the course "History and civilization of the Tartars" is held at the "Ovidius" University of Constanța.

Regarding our efforts to preserve the cultural identity, we paid special attention to the activity of dance ensembles. Currently, UDTTMR has 19 more traditional Tatar dance ensembles, which operate within the branches of Constanța (Qaradeniz, Mini-Qaradeniz and Kishkene-Qaradeniz), Medgidia (Qarasu, Mini-Qarasu, Kishkene-Qarasu), Mihail Kogallareanu (Yildiz). Techirghiol (Mini-Cansu), Agigea (Aqsu), Mangalia (Caşlar), Cobadin (Canlar), Topraisar (Can Renkler), Amzacea (Qırmızı Tıldızlar), Valu lui Traian (Qaytarma), Murfatlar (Nurbatlar), Ovidiu (Qanara and Kișkene & # 8211 Qanara), Ciocîrlia (Bulbul) and a mandolin formation at Tuzla (Qarilgaș).

The involvement of UDTTMR in the CORAL project is not accidental at all.
Religion unites all of us who share the same spiritual beliefs, regardless of ethnicity, so in this case, we turned our attention to all Muslim children in Dobrogea, whether they are Tartars recognized from father to son, or just religion. she was the one who united us.
Being in direct contact with our communities in the territory, we found with astonishment that there are many children of Islamic religion who failed to go to school too much, so we turned our attention to the present project and thus came to meeting the requirements of the Constanța County School Inspectorate to identify and persuade as many children as possible to return to school.

Romanian Tatars through the Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars in Romania promote history, language, culture, traditions and customs. UDTTMR also promotes songs from Tatar folklore, traditional Tatar dances and of course dishes from Tatar cuisine.

The first documentary record of the stable presence of ethnic Turks on the current territory of Romania is from 1264 when, following internal feudal battles in the Seljuk Anatolian Empire, a group of 12,000 soldiers led by Emperor Izeyddin Keykavuz settled in Dobrogea. These were sent by the Byzantine emperor Michael the Palaeologus to defend the Byzantine Empire from foreign invasions. The Dobrogea settlement was named Babadag by the pre-Ottoman Turks, which means & # 8222The Father of the Mountains & # 8221. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, more and more Turks came to the area, and Turkish rule continued for hundreds of years. Most of the villages and towns in Dobrogea had Turkish names.

Only in 1877, after the Turkish-Russian-Romanian war, North Dobrogea was returned to Romania, which had obtained its Independence from the Ottoman Empire, after more than four and a half centuries.
About 30,000 Turks currently live in Romania.

On December 21, 1993, the Turkish Democratic Union of Romania was founded in Constanța. The Turkish Democratic Union of Romania is an apolitical organization, the only one recognized by the Romanian Government that belongs to ethnic Turks, Romanian citizens. Its basic objective is to express, protect and promote the ethno-cultural, linguistic and religious identity of its members.

In the almost 800 years of coexistence, Turks and Romanians have respected each other's culture, customs and language. The largest community of Turks in Romania is in Constanta. Ethnicists describe Romanians as an example of hospitality and, even if they do not share the same religious beliefs, they have long removed any kind of cultural barrier.

After 1989, there was no national holiday of Romania in which the ethnic Turks were not present. The heroes commemorated us and sang the Hora Unirii together with the Romanians. And that's because they also feel and live in Romanian. A year ago, the Turkish community in Constanţa received a new proof of Romanian hospitality. The Carol I Mosque in Constanţa was restored, and the Royal House of Romania participated in the inauguration. Hundreds of years of Romanian-Turkish coexistence can also be found in gastronomy. Coffee, caimacul, ciulamaua, iahnia, yogurt or musacaua are all Turkish dishes and words.
Sarmaua, which many believe to be a traditional dish, is in fact a Turkish dish made from chopped ram with rice. Romanians, especially Moldovans, have adapted the recipe so today we eat pork tenderloin.

Traditional Turkish costumes

For women- fistan, kaftan, turban, Ișlenmiș gömlek (embroidered dresses and shirts for the holidays), fez, veil cember, shawls, embroidered ilic.

For men- Sober men's suit in dark blue, with black embroidery, with a red belt and fez of the same color.

Gastronomy

Hundreds of years of Romanian-Turkish coexistence can also be found in gastronomy. Coffee, caimac, ciulamaua, iahnia, yogurt or musacaua are all Turkish dishes and words.
Sarmaua, which many believe to be a traditional dish, is in fact a Turkish dish made from chopped ram with rice. Romanians, especially Moldovans, have adapted the recipe so today we eat pork tenderloin.

Turkish cuisine has a long history, today it is largely the legacy of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a refined fusion of cuisines from Central Asia, the Middle East and the Balkans. Turkish cuisine has influenced the kitchens of its neighbors, including Romania. The recipes differ from one area to another, depending on traditions and geography. The south is famous for its kebab, baclava and cataif recipes. In the east, Turkish cuisine makes a lot of use of olives and olive oil due to their intense cultivation in the area. Many fish and corn are consumed on the Black Sea coast due to Slavic and Balkan influences. Vegetables and greens are indispensable in the food in the areas adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. Central Anatolia has many specialties, such as keskek, mantis and gozleme. Beans, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant are the main ingredients in Tucescu cuisine. Pistachios, almonds and walnuts are used in desserts. In Turkish cuisine, fruit compote is eaten with pilaf or meat pies. Eggplant plays an important role in Turkish cuisine. Combine with minced meat and use in kebab, moussaka. Yogurt, which can accompany most meals containing meat, rice or bread, is also appreciated. Ayran is one of the most famous Turkish drinks, obtained from yogurt mixed with water and salt. Romania has also borrowed many traditional Turkish recipes but these have been slightly modified according to our preferences. The traditional dishes are:

Döner kebab- Kebabul comes in various forms and was created by the Ottomans, being originally prepared horizontally, from lamb, pork or chicken.

Lokum & # 8211 Lokum or Rahat Lokum is what in Romania is known as "shit" (and not in a pejorative sense). The gelatinous Turkish desert was also created during the Ottoman Empire and spread to all the territories they conquered. Turkish shit is mostly made of dates, pistachios, hazelnuts or crushed peanuts and surrounded by gelatin, although it is very common and the variant known in Romania, exclusively gelatinous, usually flavored with rose water, pistachio, parchment or lemon.

Baklava & # 8211 There is a theory that the recipe for Turkish baclava is actually an adaptation of the "placenta" cake (pie) of the Romans in the 2nd century BC. The earliest mention of baclavala as it is prepared today is from the 15th century, when the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire used to serve this cake during Ramadan. Baclavaua is made from puff pastry dough, sometimes filled with walnuts, other times with pistachios or hollow, syruped in honey and with ground pistachios sprinkled over.

Turkish coffee & # 8211 Turkish coffee does not refer to a certain variety of coffee beans, but rather to the way the coffee is prepared. It is finely chopped and boiled with water. Thus, a strong and creamy coffee results, and after it is poured into the cup, the dough is left to settle, and can even be used for reading in the coffee cup. This way of making coffee has been confirmed by UNESCO as part of Turkey's Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Menemen- The Turkish breakfast is a special one, and Menemen is one of the dishes that contribute to this. This dish contains onions, peppers (hot and / or fatty, according to preference), eggs and tomatoes. Prepare by cooking the onion in a little oil, then adding the chopped pepper and then the diced tomatoes. The last time, after all the vegetables have hardened, add the beaten eggs as for the omelet. The result is a creamy omelet that can be eaten on bread or with a fork.

Künefe- This dessert is one that, again, has its origins in the Ottoman Empire, being created in the historical region of the Levant. Künefe is actually a layer of fresh cheese wrapped in a crispy crust of semolina or thin noodles. After being fried, during which time it is immersed in sugar syrup, water and orange essence or rose water, the dessert is covered with ground pistachios.

Dolma & # 8211 Dolma represents in Turkish cuisine any dish with a filling, including wire (from whose name comes the Romanian sarmale). The filling may or may not contain meat and is usually placed in vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers, onions, zucchini or diced eggplant to make room for the filling. Turkish brine refers to those Dolma preparations that are made from vine or cabbage leaves. Dolma can be served hot or cold (usually hot when it contains meat and cold when not) and with a lemon and egg sauce or garlic yogurt.

Pilav- The Romanian pilaf has its origins in the Turkish dish with a similar name: pilav. In fact, both are derived from a Persian preparation. The rice is prepared with the help of various spices and meat soup (especially chicken). It is used as a garnish and base for various dishes not only in Turkey but also in the Balkans.

Fırın Sütlaç- The name seems difficult to pronounce in Romanian so we won't complicate it. It is actually a rice pudding, baked, whose secret ingredients are said to be fresh milk, constant stirring and patience. The pudding is initially cooked on the stove, then placed in clay pots and baked in the oven until it receives a golden crust.

Börek & # 8211 Börek also has its origins in the Ottoman Empire, more precisely in the historical region of Anatolia. This is a dish also made from pie sheets, like baclava, but, unlike this, Börek has dough sheets cooked for a while in the pan, then filled with a mixture of feta cheese, parsley and oil, greased with egg and put in the oven to bake. Another option is to use meat in the mixture that fills the pie sheets. Although it may remain as a single-sheet dish, some chefs choose to twist the dough sheets into a filling, like a roll or a cigarette.


Restaurants where you can't tip

People go to the food court to a much greater extent for the atmosphere than for the food of the restaurants there. That's how it is in Bucharest, and I suppose it's the same in the world. Therefore, grouped restaurants not only do not cannibalize their business, but on the contrary. And those who invest in such a thing are smart and visionary. The last two well-made food courts recently opened, Carnivale Food Market and Agora Floreasca, should be a permanent source of reflection for those in HoReCa, and not only for them.

So, some people who know well how to make the people of Bucharest give them the money they have, and even with great joy, they went much further.Not only did they make a food court this time, in addition to the highly successful restaurants and clubs they have, but they also went where few had the courage to cross the "red line" from Piata Unirii, coming from north: in New Times.

They took the ground floor of a huge office building just built there, by other people just as smart and visionary, no doubt. There was a communist factory there, the New Times equipment plant. Now it is a real business complex, with four giant blocks, which will be joined by others, from what can be seen around.

Those who have Fratelli, Biutiful and probably others, have built a food court, which they very much called Carnivale Food Market. It is medium in size: not as big as in the big malls, but not as small as in other business centers of comparable size.

In half of the space they have their restaurant, Biutiful Downtown, and the other half they gave it to several restaurants that sell at the counter and people sit in the common area in the middle. I counted the following restaurants in Carnivale Food Market: Pizza Truck, Fresh Pasta Gattini, Meatic by Adi Hadean, Zaitoone Express, Japanos, a Waffes Truck and a Tanqueray gin bar.

On January 4, they launched Biutiful Downtown, and suddenly a gust of wind came. After a month, they opened the rest, and another one was immediately added to the first gust of world.

Everyone makes the food in front of you, except the ones from Japanos, who bring in boxes, from their factory in Pipera, a good part of it. The people in the truck make a very good pizza. So is fresh pasta from Gattini.

The largest restaurant in Carnivale Food Market - apart from Biutiful Downtown, of course - is Adi Hadean's MEATic. Its open fire with wood is, without a doubt, the center of attention of the whole ensemble, which you reach instinctively driven by the unmistakable smell, which makes more than half of the marketing invested in sets. MEATic was closed when we were there, on Saturday they have a program only in the evening. Zaitoone Express was also closed, and I don't know if it was just then, or it just isn't functional yet.

There is also Japanos that I mentioned, with a more consistent food offer than in the locations I know from the center. Then a Belgian Citroen waffle van (is there a Romanian word for these famous desserts?), And a Tanqueray gin bar, which is said to be the most famous in the world.

The tables are shared, in the center, the furniture is very well made, from the best quality materials, as well as all the industrial decor of the end of the 18th century, in fact, the one with the steam cars, with a phenomenal success in everyone today. Steampunk.

And another smart innovation at Carnivale Food Market: so that you don't have to pay at every counter where you get your food (which would make their work difficult, customers would wait, and many other small inconveniences), a counter at the entrance some money on a card, with which you then pay everywhere. Fast, elegant, hygienic, western, digital. Smart and efficient this time too.

I don't know how they thought to solve the tip problem, but I'm sure they will find an elegant solution for it as well. Especially since it is very simple, but they need a small extra terminal, separately, as we have seen elsewhere: some buttons with predefined amounts (3, 5, 7 and 10 lei, say), you press one of the they, and ready, instantly moved the lions from your account to Fratelli's.

Carnivale Food Market is an excellent thing thought out and accomplished, I am sure they will have the success they deserve. It can be seen from the hustle and bustle that even a supermarket would envy. These smart and visionary boys from Biutiful made those from Timpuri Noi no longer complexed by their neighborhood. It's not a small thing at all & # 8230 (GB - March 2019)


Pleşcoi sausages, the secret of an authentic recipe! The best sausages in Romania!

The locality of Pleșcoi, mentioned for the first time in a document issued by the voivode Vlad Călugărul on April 24, 1484 in the seat of Târgoviște under the name of Plăcicoi, the village that will preserve, preserve and use the recipe of the most famous sausages in Buzău, is one of the oldest localities in Wallachia, with over 528 years of existence documented. Antiquity is the main argument for keeping the secret of Plescoi sausages, says historian Marius Constantinescu.

Later, after the 17th century, this product was made almost exclusively in the village of Pleșcoi (today included in the commune of Berca), from which they took their current name and reputation. Originally called Buzău sausages, their preparation (from sheep meat) was related to the large number of sheep grazing on the hills and pastures of the Buzău Mountains. The product was made in every home, kept smoked and dried and, together with salted and smoked meat, known today as pastrami, were, for the locals, some of the main products that constituted the reserve of preserved food, which did not deteriorate.

‘These sausages appeared in very old times, in any case older than 2000 - 2500 years. What they were seasoned with in those times, it is difficult to specify, but, certainly, spices gathered from the flora of the area were used - garlic, thyme, basil, sorrel, puree, dill, horseradish, poppy seeds', Marius Constantinescu also explained .

The historian from Buzau considers that these sausages were already well known in the 13th-14th centuries and especially after the founding of Wallachia under Basarab I (1324-1352), being sold in the Fair called Drăgaica and the Fair between countries, which took place for two weeks, between June 10 and 24, before the birth of Saint John the Baptist, at the foot of the Pentele, in 1778, in Buzau.

'In the Drăgaica fair, the fishermen from the Danube ponds came with fish, the people from Bărăgan came full of grain, the delenii with selected wines, the Muntenians with the famous Buzău brandy, others with tasty cheeses, came the shoemakers, tailors, furriers and other merchants if they sold their made-up things, the peasants came with homemade cloths or the mothers with mohairs, the gardeners came with vegetables. Neither were the people from Plesco (s.n.) with their famous pastrami nor the fiddlers in Buzău or Cândești (…) ’, records a source of time.

In her turn, Cristina Partal, the president of the Buzău branch of ANTREC, leans towards another explanation.

‘Towards the end of the 18th century, as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars that devastated the Balkan Peninsula, many Bulgarian and Serb inhabitants crossed the Danube and settled in the Buzău area, where they created the well-known holiday. They brought and implanted vegetable cultivation here, contributing to the economic development of the area. Among the vegetables grown by the Serbs was the hot pepper, which they used a lot in their daily food and food preservation. Some Serbs also settled in the Berca-Pleșcoi area, they introduced hot peppers in the seasoning of local sausages, thus helping to finalize their taste, as well as the emergence of local salami - babicul, prepared from beef and pork, as well. strongly spiced. Over time, these sausages came to be known as Pleşcoi sausages, under this name they were sold and consumed not only during Drăgăica, but also throughout the year, being one of the delights of the famous taverns in Buzău and throughout the area ', says the president of ANTREC Buzău.

Cristina Partal has the original recipe for sausages: ‘After the mutton is cleaned from the bones, in a cauldron, boil the bones and with the resulting juice, warm, knead the minced meat with garlic, thyme and chopped hot peppers. The composition is left to stand for 1-2 hours, after which a final seasoning is made. The sheep's cheeks will be filled with this composition. The sausages will be dried and smoked, and they can be served both raw and fried.

In his turn, the publicist Viorel Frâncu, the author of several works on local history, believes that ‘these sausages are an outlaw invention’.

"The outlaws needed well-preserved supplies for several weeks in a row, and the slaps are ideal for adventurers who do not have a house or a table," said Viorel Francu.

On April 1, 2014, the Buzău County Agricultural Directorate together with the Association for the Protection of Plescoi Sausages started the action to protect the traditional trademark ‘Plescoi sausages’, in order to obtain the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) certificate.

“Pleşcoi sausages will become the first traditional brand in Buzău County, re-certified according to the new European regulations. The Berca area, the homeland of Pleşcoi sausages, and the neighboring communes will have a brand with the mention I.G.P. with which they will be able to enter the European market, and the documentation will be sent to Brussels ’, said the officials of the Buzău County Agricultural Directorate.

They welcomed the initiative whereby the raw material for traditional brands will only have to be produced in the area.

‘Until now, anyone could produce Plescoi sausages, even if they brought raw materials from any corner of the world. According to the new European norms, as is normal, the raw material must come from the area, which will contribute to stimulating investments and traditional occupations', said Marian Grigoraș, former director of DAJ Buzău.

According to new rules imposed by the Ministry of Agriculture, traditional products can no longer be made in their own kitchen, but in spaces that must comply with a certain technological flow and certain compartments. By re-certifying traditional products, the state wants to exclude counterfeit products from gallantry. In order to be recognized as traditional products, they must be manufactured under certain conditions, and producers are required to certify that the preparation they make is a traditional one for the area.

It must be obtained with local raw materials, not contain food additives, comply with a local recipe, a traditional process and technological process and be clearly different from other products in the same category. Once the certificate is obtained that allows the manufacturer to promote the product as traditional and recognized by the authorities as such, the obligation arises that the manufacture is done only in limited quantities. The traditional product certificate may be withdrawn if there are confirmed complaints or if a check shows that the producers have infringed the rules in force.

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Hollywood stars and their wives from other times. What's the explanation? Photo

The remarkable similarities between these stars and their historical twins have left many conspiracy theorists convinced that they have managed to travel through time. Whatever the truth, these mysterious resemblances should leave you speechless. Several Hollywood stars have found their impersonators from other times.


Heart and cardiovascular health: The literature recommends beets as a cardiovascular protector and as an adjunct in hypertension. Its consumption favors the increase of the concentration of nitric oxide (neurotransmitter with a role in relaxing the blood vessels) in the body. At the same time, betaine from the composition of beetroot (antioxidant that gives the specific color) has a strong effect against the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol and prevents its deposition.
Brain health: Eating beets helps maintain healthy circulation in the brain and supports oxygenation of the brain.
Diabetes: Beets contain alpha lipoic acid, an antioxidant that decreases insulin resistance, reduces the effects of oxidative stress, lowers blood sugar levels and prevents neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy.
Anti-inflammatory effect: some of the phytonutrients in beets (betanin, isobetanine) have an anti-inflammatory effect, acting on the enzymes involved in triggering the inflammation process.
Complementary antitumor therapy: through the combination of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances, beets and beet supplements have the potential to support the body in tumor diseases.

In the pharmaceutical market, beet extract can be marketed in the form of capsules, tablets or concentrated juices, in combination with other active substances (other plant extracts, enzymes).


Pasta with leurda and Brie cheese

Early spring brings with it a miraculous plant that I adore: wild garlic.

Leurda (Allium ursinium) also called wild garlic, bear garlic is a plant with miraculous powers. Considered a real one “Medicinal detergent” leurda works wonders for the body, so don't be shy to eat it.

Her taste of garlic and spring urges you to eat it in all possible ways, but especially in fresh condition.

Today I tried pasta with leurda and Brie cheese, pasta that went to Cristina's contest.

Ingredients 4 people:

& # 8211 1 large bundle of leurda (approx. 150g)

Pesto leurda:

& # 8211 1 big link of leurda

& # 8211 3 tablespoons olive oil

& # 8211 juice from half a lemon

& # 8211 1 tablespoon almonds (optional)

How to prepare pasta:

The pasta is boiled in a large pot according to the instructions on the package.

Drain well and mix with 200g Brie cheese cut the pieces, sour cream , leurda tocata, salt pepper.

Put the whole composition in a hyena bowl greased with a little oil. On top add the grated cheese, 50 g Brie cheese cut into thin slices and cherry tomatoes.

We put the tray in the oven preheated to 200 degrees Celsius, for 15-20 minutes. When the top is nicely browned, it means that the leurda pasta is ready.

How to prepare leurda pesto:

In a chopper we put all the ingredients: chopped leurda, olive oil, lemon juice, almonds, salt and mix them well until we get a paste.

We put this in a bowl and add it to the pasta when we serve it.


Shirataki Carbonara

It's Easter time, Konjac shirataki pasta. As the name suggests, they are made from Konjac. Used by the Japanese since ancient times, Konjac is a very rich root Glucomannan fiber. It helps block fat assimilation, normalize blood sugar, reduce stress on the pancreas and discourage abnormalities that lead to high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). Glucomannan also lowers cholesterol and helps regulate bowel movements and detoxify the colon. Glucomannan is a soluble fiber with high absorbent power when ingested, causing a feeling of satiety. Glucomannan contributes to weight loss! Shirataki Konjac can be consumed from the Attack phase! REMEMBER! Only Konjac shirataki pasta is allowed in the Dukan diet!

Don't expect these pastas to be like the original, but I promise you won't even realize that they're different (I gave my husband a taste and he didn't catch it until after I told him they were no pasta “Normal”).


The legend of the Holy Grail

The legend of the Holy Grail. A mystery from ancient times. Over the centuries, the fate of this now legendary ship, the so-called Holy Grail, has come to haunt stories ranging from the Arthurian legend to Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.

Because Jesus used the cup at the Last Supper in what became the basis of the Christian Eucharist, the Grail took on the aura of an extremely holy relic for many.

The Grail takes on even greater significance in the stories about which Joseph of Arimathea, in whose tomb Jesus was placed before the resurrection, used the cup to collect the blood of Jesus while he was crucified.

Theories abound about where the cup finally went. One says that the Templars, a medieval military order that lasted more than 200 years, took it from Jerusalem during the Crusades.


How to paint Easter eggs in onion and beet peels

Two of the most natural methods of painting Easter eggs are those in onion and beet leaves. The recipes, sacredly preserved from the elders, still manage to gain followers and delight both housewives and guests. Housewives who use these methods collect onion peels in advance and keep one or two pieces of beets. For both methods, we need eggs that are as light in color and as clean as possible, without stains and we collect the “decoration” from the garden or from the field, writes emaramures.ro.

How to paint eggs in onion peels

We choose 15 eggs for which we need the shells of five large onions. In a pot, with a dark interior, we boil 2-3 liters of water together with the onion peels and eggs, which we have previously decorated with leaves of different shapes and sizes and tied in thin socks. Add two tablespoons of vinegar (helps to fix the color) and let all the ingredients boil for about 15 minutes, over low heat, so as not to crack the eggs. After they have boiled, take the eggs out on a plate with a wooden spoon and leave them to cool. After they have dried and cooled, remove the eggs from the stockings, remove the leaves and then, with the help of a piece of bacon, grease each egg to give it shine.

Another method of painting is the following: Shells from 1 kg. of red onion is left to soak overnight (about 12 hours) in a covered bowl. In this mixture, to which is added a tablespoon of vinegar, the next day, boil the eggs for 10-15 minutes. After boiling, the eggs are left to stand in this mixture depending on how pronounced we want their color to be.

Painting with beets

We need two pieces of beets that we cut into cubes, not very small, and put them in a liter of water. Add two tablespoons of vinegar and let the mixture boil for 10-15 minutes. Caution: if the beet is left too much to boil, it will turn brown. We turn off the fire when the water turns ruby, and we strain it. Beforehand, boil the eggs for 5-7 minutes, then put them in the beet juice and leave them until they get the desired shade, sometimes it can last even one night. Another faster technique for painting beet eggs is to boil the eggs with the beets, but there is a risk that they will break or crack.



Comments:

  1. Fezshura

    change domain name

  2. Medr

    Well done, what words ..., the wonderful idea

  3. Dalbert

    Specially register to participate in the discussion.

  4. Garran

    I have a similar situation. Ready to help.

  5. Ahsalom

    Yes you are talented

  6. Daran

    STUDENT YOUNG

  7. Gogo

    It seems to me a remarkable idea



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